Cournand, André Frederic


Cournand, a French doctor and medical researcher who became an American cititzen in 1941, shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine in 1956 with the German Werner Forssmann and Cournand's American mentor Dickinson Richards. They were awarded the prize for a new, interventionist procedure, cardiac catheterisation, which provided medical researchers with important insights into the conditions inside a working human heart and has since become part of the canon of routine clinical procedures in cardiology.

Keywords: medical research; heart; circulation; cardiac catheterisation; heart disease; Nobel Prize; human experimentation; World War II; research ethics

Further Reading

Cournand AF (1975) Cardiac catheterization: development of the technique, its contributions to experimental medicine, and its initial applications in man. Acta Medica Scandinavica 579(suppl.): 1–32.

Franch RH (1986) Profiles in cardiology. André F. Cournand: Father of Clinical Cardiopulmonary Physiology. Clinical Cardiology 9: 82–86.

Fye WB (1996) American Cardiology: The History of a Specialty and its College. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Hazelgrove J (2002) The old faith and the new science: The Nuremberg code and human experimentation ethics in Britain, 1946–73. Social History of Medicine 15: 109–135.

Weisse AB (2002) Heart to Heart: The Twentieth Century Battle against Cardiac Disease. An Oral History. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.

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Timmermann, Carsten(Feb 2011) Cournand, André Frederic. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. [doi: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0002391]