Ludwig, Carl Wilhelm Friedrich


1816–1895 German physiologist, who introduced scientific measurement and instruments into physiological research; important teacher in physiology, and author of numerous investigations of the cardiovascular and secretory systems and metabolism.

Keywords: physiological instruments; cardiophysiology; organic physics; mercury gas blood‐pump; kymograph

Figure 1.

Carl Wilhelm Friedrich Ludwig (1816–1895).


Further Reading

Ludwig C (1852–1855) Lehrbuch der Physiologie des Menschen. Heidelberg: Winter.

Dictionary of Scientific Biography (1970–1980) Gillispie CC (ed.). New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.

Lenoir T (1988) Science for the clinic: Science policy and the formation of Carl Ludwig's institute in Leipzig. In: Colmann W and Holmes F (eds) The Investigative Enterprise. Experimental Physiology in Nineteenth‐century Medicine, pp. 139–178. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Neue Deutsche Biographie (1952–) Historische Kommission der Bayrischen Akademie der Wissenschaften (ed.). Berlin: Duncker & Humbloth.

Schröer H (1967) Carl Ludwig. Begründer der messenden Experimentalphysiologie. Stuttgart: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.

Zimmermann HG (1998) Carl Ludwig: The man, his time, his influence. Pflügers Archiv 432: R9–R22.

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Lohff, B(Apr 2001) Ludwig, Carl Wilhelm Friedrich. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. [doi: 10.1038/npg.els.0002505]