Morphometrics

Abstract

Morphometrics is the quantitative summary of size and shape differences among organisms and their components.

Keywords: shape; shape change; landmarks; growth and form; deformation; image analysis

Figure 1.

Thirteen landmarks on a typical midsagittal image.

Figure 2.

Procrustes shape coordinates for 28 cases; o, normal; ×, schizophrenic.

Figure 3.

Group mean shapes, normal (o) and schizophrenic (×) subsamples.

Figure 4.

A thin‐plate spline calls attention to a bulge. (Dots indicate average shape for schizophrenic subjects.)

Figure 5.

From patient to normal, extrapolated until it creases. The feature of Figure is now in sharp focus in orientation and position.

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References

Bookstein FL (1991) Morphometric Tools for Landmark Data. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Bookstein FL (1997) Shape and the information in medical images: a decade of the morphometric synthesis. Computer Vision and Image Understanding 66: 97–118.

Bookstein FL (2000) Creases as local features of deformation grids. Medical Image Analysis 4: 93–110.

Dryden IL and Mardia KV (1998) Statistical Shape Analysis. Chichester, UK: John Wiley and Sons.

Glasbey CA and Horgan GW (1995) Image Analysis for the Biological Sciences. Chichester, UK: John Wiley and Sons.

Good P (1994) Permutation Tests. New York: Springer Verlag.

Marcus LA, Corti M, Loy A, Naylor GJP and Slice DE (eds) (1996) Advances in Morphometrics. NATO ASI Series A: Life Sciences, vol. 284. New York: Plenum.

Reyment RA (1991) Multidimensional Palaeobiology. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Further Reading

Bookstein FL (1996) Morphometrics. Math Horizons February: 28–31.

Bookstein FL, Schäfer K, Prossinger H et al. (1999) Comparing frontal cranial profiles in archaic and modern Homo by morphometric analysis. The Anatomical Record – The New Anatomist 257: 217–224.

Corti M, Marcus LF and Hingst‐Zaher E (eds) (2000) Geometric morphometrics in mammalogy. Hystrix; Italian Journal of Mammalogy 11(1). [special issue]

Marcus LF, Corti M, Loy A, Naylor GJP and Slice DE (eds) (1996) Advances in Morphometrics. NATO ASI Series A: Life Sciences, vol. 284. New York: Plenum.

O’Higgins P (2000) The study of morphological variation in the hominid fossil record: Biology, landmarks, and geometry. Journal of Anatomy 197: 103–120.

Slice DE, Bookstein FL, Marcus LA, and Rohlf FJ (1995) A Glossary for Geometric Morphometrics. [http://life.bio.sunysb.edu/morph/gloss1.html]

Small C (1996) The Statistical Analysis of Shape. New York: Springer‐Verlag.

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How to Cite close
Bookstein, Fred L(Apr 2001) Morphometrics. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1038/npg.els.0002648]