Microprojectile Bombardment


Microprojectile bombardment is a method by which foreign substances such as DNA are introduced into living cells and tissues via high‐velocity microprojectiles.

Keywords: biolistics; gene gun; genetic engineering; particle bombardment; particle gun

Figure 1.

Demonstration of the use of a gene gun. The model shown is the prototype of the PDS‐1000/He. Photo by Rob Way, Cornell University.

Figure 2.

The microprojectile launch mechanism of the PDS‐1000/He device. A shock wave of helium gas launches the macroprojectile from its holder. The macroprojectile slams into the stopping screen and is retained. The microprojectiles continue through the openings in the screen and hit a target placed below.



Gray DJ and Finer JJ (eds) (1993) Development and operation of five particle guns for introduction of DNA into plant cells. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture 33: 219–257.

Lius S, Manshardt RM, Fitch MM‐M, Slightom JL, Sanford JC and Gonsalves D (1997) Pathogen‐derived resistance provides papaya with effective protection against papaya ringspot virus. Molecular Breeding 3: 161–168.

Sanford JC (1988) The biolistic process. Trends in Biotechnology 6: 299–302.

Sanford JC, Klein TM, Wolf ED and Allen N (1987) Delivery of substances into cells and tissues using a particle bombardment process. Particulate Science and Technology 5: 27–37.

Sanford JC, Devit MJ, Russell JA et al. (1991) An improved, helium‐driven biolistic device. Technique 3: 3–16.

Further Reading

Hagio T (1998) Optimizing the particle bombardment method for efficient genetic transformation. Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly 32: 239–247.

Haynes JR, McCabe DE, Swain WF, Widera G and Fuller JT (1996) Particle‐mediated nucleic acid immunization. Journal of Biotechnology 44: 37–42.

Johnston SA and Tang D (1994) Gene gun transfection of animal cells and genetic immunization. Methods in Cell Biology 43: 353–365.

Southgate EM, Davey MR, Power JB and Marchant R (1995) Factors affecting the genetic engineering of plants by microprojectile bombardment. Biotechnology Advances 13: 631–651.

Yang NS and Christou P (eds) (1994) Particle Bombardment Technology for Gene Transfer. New York: Oxford University Press.

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How to Cite close
Kikkert, Julie Russell(Apr 2001) Microprojectile Bombardment. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1038/npg.els.0002657]