Bütschli, O

Abstract

Otto Bütschli (1848–1920) – professor of zoology and palaeontology at Heidelberg University, made fundamental contributions to cytology and the investigation of unicellular organisms, first of all ciliates. Bütschli was the first to recognise and to demonstrate that conjugation of ciliates was not a reproductive process but a sexual reorganisation of the cell similar to cross‐fertilisation. His protozoan studies culminated in a three‐volume monograph (Bütschli, 1880–1882, 1883–1887, 1887–1889), which also contained many of his own original works. This 2000‐page critical review of contemporary knowledge actually established protozoology as an autonomous discipline. Moreover, in 1875, Bütschli was the first to identify and determine the sequence of the stages of nuclear division (mitosis) in several types of animal cells. He provided excellent descriptions of dividing cells.

Keywords: Bütschli, O; ciliates; cytology; Heidelberg; protozoology; zoology

Figure 1. O. Bütschli. Heidelberg, 1886. Original from the collection of Moscow Society of Naturalists. S.I. Fokin, . Reproduced with permission from Fokin (2013) © Protozoological Society.
Figure 2. O. Bütschli. Figures from the third part of ‘Protozoa. Infusoria’. Bronn's Klassen und Ordnungen, 1887–1889. Morphology of Paramecium and its details. S.I. Fokin, . Reproduced with permission from Fokin (2013) © Protozoological Society.
Figure 3. O. Bütschli with his pupils on excursion. Heidelberg, 1890. Original from the archive of Heidelberg University. Stand at the left: Friedrich Blochmann (first), Robert Lauterborn (fourth), Nikolai N. Adelung (seventh), Wladimir T. Schewiakoff (ninth). Sits – Hedwig Bütschli. S.I. Fokin, . Reproduced with permission from Fokin (2013) © Protozoological Society RAS.
Figure 4. O. Bütschli during his lecture. Heidelberg, beginning of 1900s. Original from the collection of Sergei Fokin. S.I. Fokin, . Reproduced with permission from Fokin, 2004a ©Mikrokosmos.
Figure 5. O. Bütschli at the working place. Heidelberg, about 1915. Original from the collection of Klaus Hausmann, Berlin. S.I. Fokin, . Reproduced with permission from Fokin (2013) ©Protozoological Society RAS.
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References

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How to Cite close
Fokin, Sergei I(Feb 2015) Bütschli, O. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0002745]