Claude, Albert

Abstract

Albert Claude (1899–1983) made major contributions to the understanding of the living cell's architecture in the 1940s, and even more importantly, to devising the methodological approach on which the discipline of cell biology is founded. This approach is marked by the coordinated use of independent experimental techniques, especially the separation of cellular components from homogenised tissue by means of high speed centrifugation, so that each of the centrifuge‐isolated cell fractions can be separately studied biochemically, and the use of the electron microscope to locate these components in native cell structure.

Key Concepts:

  • The field of cell biology depends upon the coordinated application of several independent experimental methods, especially the use of fractionation biochemistry to characterise the function of cell components and the use of electron microscopy to determine their location in the cell.

Keywords: cell biology; electron microscopy; endoplasmic reticulum; mitochondrion; protein synthesis; Rockefeller Institute; ultracentrifuge

References

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Further Reading

Bechtel W (2008) Discovering Cell Mechanisms: The Creation of Modern Cell Biology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Fruton JF (1999) Proteins, Enzymes, Genes: The Interplay of Chemistry and Biology. New haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Kay LE (1996) The Molecular Vision of Life: Caltech, the Rockefeller Foundation, and the Rise of the New Biology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Morange M (2000) A History of Molecular Biology. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Olby R (1994) The Path to the Double Helix: The Discovery of DNA, rev. edn. New York, NY: Dover.

Rheinberger HJ (1997) Toward a History of Epistemic Things: Synthesizing Proteins in the Test Tube. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.

Summers WC (1999) Félix d'Herelle and the Origins of Molecular Biology. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

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How to Cite close
Rasmussen, Nicolas(Nov 2014) Claude, Albert. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0002752]