Fol, Hermann

Abstract

Hermann Fol (1845–1892) – Swiss marine biologist and microscopist – made important contributions to the clarification of the process of fertilisation and to the study of the anatomy and development of marine organisms. He observed and depicted very neatly how the spermatozoon penetrates and transfers its nucleus into the egg cell. He also pioneered experimental embryology and experimental teratology, artificially inducing multiple fertilisations. Fol's greatest love, however, was marine biology. He undertook numerous expeditions with his boats and devised several oceanographic apparatuses. In late 1881, he co‐founded today's Observatoire océanologique de Villefranche.

Keywords: fertilisation; marine biology; cytology; mitosis; experimental teratology

Figure 1. Hermann Fol. Reproduced from Bedot, M (1984) by permission of the Biblioteca del Dipartimento di scienze biologiche geologiche e ambientali dell'Università di Bologna.
Figure 2. In 1873, Fol described four ‘sternförmige Figuren’ (asters) in the developing eggs of the medusa Geryonia fungiformis, killed with some acetic acid exactly at the moment of the second cleavage. He compared these structures to ferric powder arranging around a magnet; a, endoplasm; b, ectoplasm; h, aster; n, nucleus. Reproduced from Fol H (1873) by permission of Thüringer Universitäts‐ und Landesbibliothek in Jena.
Figure 3. The penetration of the spermatozoon into the egg of the sea star Asterias glacialis (today Marthasterias glacialis). Reproduced from Fol H (1879) by permission of the Biblioteca del Dipartimento di scienze biologiche geologiche e ambientali dell'Università di Bologna.
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References

Bütschli O (1873) Beiträge zur Kenntniss der freilebenden Nematoden. Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich Leopodinisch‐Carolinischen Deutschen Akademie der Naturforscher 36 (5): 1–124.

Fol H (1873) Die erste Entwickelung des Geryonideneies. Jenaische Zeitschrift für Medicin und Naturwissenschaft 7: 471–492.

Fol H (1875) Études sur le développement des Mollusques. Premier mémoire: Sur le développement des pteropodes. Archives de zoologie expérimentale et générale 4: 1–214.

Fol H (1877) Sur le commencement de l'hénogénie chez divers animaux. Archives des sciences physiques et naturelles 58: 439–472.

Fol H (1879) Recherches sur la fécondation et le commencement de l'hénogénie chez divers animaux. Mémoires de la Société de Physique et d'Histoire Naturelle de Genève 26: 89–250.

Fol H (1883) Sur l'origine de l'individualité chez les animaux supérieurs et sur les monstres doubles. Archives des sciences physiques et naturelles 10: 336–341.

Fol H (1884) Die mikroskopisch‐anatomische Technik. Leipzig: Engelmann.

Fol H (1891) Le quadrille des centres, un épisode nouveau dans l'histoire de la fécondation. Archives des sciences physiques et naturelles 25: 393–420.

Fol H and Sarasin É (1888) Pénétration de la lumière du jour dans les eaux du lac de Genève et dans celles de la Méditerranée. Archives des sciences physiques et naturelles 19: 447–466.

Warynski S and Fol H (1883) Recherches expérimentales sur la cause de quelques monstruosités simples et de divers processus embryogéniques. Revue médicale de la Suisse romande 3: 395–413.

Further Reading

Allen GA (1972) Hermann Fol. In: Gillespie CC, (ed). Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Vol. 5, pp. 51–53. New York: Scribner.

Bedot M (1894) Hermann Fol, sa vie et ses travaux. Revue suisse de zoologie 2: 1–21.

Buchs A (2005) Hermann Fol. Historisches Lexikon der Schweiz. www.hls‐dhs‐dss.ch/textes/d/D44580.php

Buscaglia M and Duboule D (2002) Developmental biology in Geneva: a three century‐long tradition. International Journal of Developmental Biology 46: 5–13.

Farley J (1982) Gametes and spores: ideas about sexual reproduction 1750–1914. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Harris H (1999) The Birth of the Cell. New Haven: Yale University Press.

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How to Cite close
Dröscher, Ariane(Apr 2015) Fol, Hermann. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0002794]