Vertebrate Herbivory and Its Ecosystem Consequences

Abstract

Herbivory is a process where animals obtain energy and nutrients from vegetative plant parts (leaves, stems, etc.). Herbivory is called grazing, browsing or folivory, depending on the size of the herbivore and the type of plant tissue consumed. The consumption is actually performed by microbes in the digestive system. The role of the animal is to prepare the material and to provide a good environment for the microbes. This requires specialisations, making herbivores a distinct animal group. Vertebrate herbivory can change forests to heathlands or grasslands and influence the composition and species richness of the herbaceous vegetation. By maintaining open habitats, herbivorous vertebrates can increase the fraction of solar radiation reflected back to the space, especially at high latitudes and altitudes. Thus, vertebrate herbivory can also counteract global warming.

Key Concepts

  • Herbivory is the collective term for consumption of plants or vegetative plant parts by animals.
  • Browsing is utilisation of woody plants by animals, normally referring to vertebrates.
  • Grazing is utilisation of herbaceous plants by animals, referring to vertebrates and big, mobile invertebrates.
  • Folivory is utilisation of photosynthetic plant tissues by small animals, normally referring to relatively immobile insect larvae.
  • Heathland, in narrow sense, refers to treeless vegetation, dominated by ericaceous plants; in broad sense, it refers to all kinds of vegetation dominated by prostrate dicotyledonous plants.
  • Grassland is treeless vegetation dominated by plants belonging to the families Poaceae (grasses), Cyperaceae (sedges and their relatives) or Juncaceae (rushes and woodrushes).

Keywords: competition; consumption; plants; species richness; vegetation; mammals; tundra

Figure 1. Tall, scattered trees in subalpine (a, from French Alps) and subarctic (b, from northern Norway) landscapes, shaped out by centuries of intense herbivory by cattle, sheep and goats (a) or reindeer (b). Photos were taken by Lauri and Tarja Oksanen.
Figure 2. The contrast between summer range, subjected to periodically intense reindeer grazing in late summer (right) and lightly grazed autumn range (left) on the mountains of northern Norway mountains. The fence across which the picture is taken is 40 years old. Photos were taken by Lauri and Tarja Oksanen.
Figure 3. Two variants of moist and nutrient‐rich low alpine meadow. Panel (a) shows an area abandoned 40 years ago when the border fence of the legal summer range was constructed; panel (b) is taken from the intensely grazed summer range. Photos were taken by Lauri and Tarja Oksanen.
Figure 4. The vegetation of a moist and nutrient‐rich low Arctic willow scrubland in the mainland (a) and of an initially similar habitat on an isolated island, where grey‐sided voles were introduced in 1991 (b; photo taken in July 2008). Photos were taken by Lauri and Tarja Oksanen.
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Oksanen, Lauri, and Olofsson, Johan(Apr 2018) Vertebrate Herbivory and Its Ecosystem Consequences. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0003283.pub2]