Modern Human Origins: The ‘Out of Africa’ Debate


Anthropologists continue to debate on the evolutionary origin of modern humans. Although most researchers agree that anatomically modern humans originated in Africa between 150 000 and 200 000 years ago, there is still debate over whether this was a speciation event that replaced other human populations outside of Africa, or whether there was genetic mixture.

Keywords: human evolution; Homo sapiens; Africa


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Nitecki MH and Nitecki DV (eds) (1994) Origins of Anatomically Modern Humans. New York: Plenum Press.

Stringer C and Andrews P (2005) The Complete World of Human Evolution. London: Thames and Hudson.

Stringer C and McKie R (1996) African Exodus: The Origins of Modern Humanity. New York: Henry Holt and Co.

Wolpoff M and Caspari R (1997) Race and Human Evolution. New York: Simon & Schuster.

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How to Cite close
Relethford, John H(Mar 2008) Modern Human Origins: The ‘Out of Africa’ Debate. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. [doi: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0003349.pub2]