Multispot Array Technologies

Abstract

Multispot arrays are known by a number of names depending on reporter‐type arrayed or analytical application (e.g. gene chip, DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) chip, DNA array, protein chip, etc.) and provide a convenient means of testing a sample or simultaneously comparing test and control samples for tens to hundreds of thousands of analytes (labelled extracts). Herein we review the technologies and techniques behind why multispot arrays have become an important analytical tool in biomedical research and clinical diagnostics. Generally, these arrays are composed of a set of immobilised material termed probes or reporters (complimentary DNAs (cDNAs), oligonucleotides and proteins) localised by deposition or synthesis into discrete test zones (spots or registers) on the surface of a solid substrate. The size and complexity of arrays varies considerably. Spots range in size from a few millimetres to a few micrometres or nanometres, and, a single array can contain up to a million spots of different reporters.

Key Concepts

  • Multispot arrays provide a simple means of performing tens to hundreds of thousands of analytical reactions using a relatively small test device.

  • As multispot arrays become a mainstay in molecular biology, the acquisition and analysis of data acquired from microarray experiments is increasingly important.

Keywords: multispot arrays; gene chip; hybridisation‐based genetic analysis; single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP); sequencing‐by‐hybridisation (SBH); comparative genome hybridisation (CGH); microRNAs; genetic linkage analysis; gene mapping; genome‐wide association studies (GWAS)

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Donaldson, Keri J, Kricka, Larry J, Surrey, Saul S, and Fortina, Paolo(Sep 2010) Multispot Array Technologies. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0003387.pub2]