Cold‐shock Response in Microorganisms

Abstract

Several species of bacteria are capable of mounting what is known as the cold‐shock response. This is induced upon a sudden decrease in external temperature and results in the transiently enhanced synthesis of a set of proteins, termed cold‐shock proteins, which allow the bacteria to adapt to low temperature.

Keywords: membrane fluidity; cold shock; RNA chaperone; Csp family

Figure 1.

A schematic model of the cold‐shock response pathway based on the ribosomes as the temperature sensors.

close

References

Aguilar PS, Cronan JE Jr and de Mendoza D (1998) A Bacillus subtilis gene induced by cold shock encodes a membrane phospholipid desaturase. Journal of Bacteriology 180: 2194–2200.

Aguilar PS, Hernandez‐Arriaga AM, Cybulski LE, Erazo AC and de Mendoza D (2001) Molecular basis of thermosensing: a two‐component signal transduction thermometer in Bacillus subtilis. EMBO Journal 20: 1681–1691.

Bae W, Xia B, Inouye M and Severinov K (2000) E. coli CspA‐family RNA chaperones are transcription antiterminators. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 97: 7784–7789.

Ermolenko DN and Makhatadze GI (2002) Bacterial cold‐shock proteins. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 59: 1902–1913.

Graumann P and Marahiel MA (1996) Some like it cold: response of microorganisms to cold shock. Archives of Microbiology 166: 293–300.

Gualerzi CO, Giuliodori AM and Pon CL (2003) Transcriptional and post‐transcriptional control of cold‐shock genes. Journal of Molecular Biology 331: 527–539.

Hebraud M and Potier P (1999) Cold shock response and low temperature adaptation in psychrotrophic bacteria. Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology 1: 211–219.

Inouye M and Phadtare S (2007) The cold‐shock response. In: Glansdorff CGaN (ed.) Physiology and Biochemistry of Extremophiles, pp. 180–193. Washington, DC: ASM Press.

Jiang W, Hou Y and Inouye M (1997) CspA, the major cold‐shock protein of E. coli, is an RNA chaperone. Journal of Biological Chemistry 272: 196–202.

Jones PG and Inouye M (1994) The cold‐shock response – a hot topic. Molecular Microbiology 11: 811–818.

Kaneda T (1991) Iso‐ and anteiso‐fatty acids in bacteria: biosynthesis, function, and taxonomic significance. Microbiology Reviews 55: 288–302.

Nelson KE, Clayton RA, Gill SR et al. (1999) Evidence for lateral gene transfer between Archaea and bacteria from genome sequence of Thermotoga maritima. Nature 399: 323–329.

Phadtare S (2004) Recent developments in bacterial cold‐shock response. Current Issues in Molecular Biology 6: 125–136.

Phadtare S, Alsina J and Inouye M (1999) Cold‐shock response and cold‐shock proteins. Current Opinion in Microbiology 2: 175–180.

Phadtare S and Inouye M (2007) The cold shock proteins. In: Margesin R, Schinner F, Marx J‐C and Gerday C (eds) Psychrophiles: From Biodiversity to Biotechnology. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer.

Phadtare S, Yamanaka K and Inouye M (2000) The Cold Shock Response in the Bacterial Stress Responses. Washington, DC: ASM Press.

VanBogelen RA and Neidhardt FC (1990) Ribosomes as sensors of heat and cold shock in E. coli. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 87: 5589–5593.

Weber MH and Marahiel MA (2003) Bacterial cold shock responses. Science Progress 86: 9–75.

Xia B, Ke H and Inouye M (2001) Acquirement of cold sensitivity by quadruple deletion of the cspA family and its suppression by PNPase S1 domain in E. coli. Molecular Microbiology 40: 179–188.

Yamanaka K, Fang L and Inouye M (1998) The CspA family in E. coli: multiple gene duplication for stress adaptation. Molecular Microbiology 27: 247–255.

Further Reading

Graumann PL and Marahiel MA (1998) A superfamily of proteins that contain the cold‐shock domain. Trends in Biochemical Sciences 23: 286–290.

Thieringer HA, Jones PG and Inouye M (1998) Cold shock and adaptation. BioEssays 20: 49–57.

Contact Editor close
Submit a note to the editor about this article by filling in the form below.

* Required Field

How to Cite close
Schumann, Wolfgang, Inouye, Masayori, and Phadtare, Sangita(Sep 2008) Cold‐shock Response in Microorganisms. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0003560.pub2]