Systematics: Relevance to the Twenty‐first Century

Abstract

An overview of systematics, the naming, classifying and ordering of life, shows that it has never been more relevant than in the present time of environmental crisis and species loss. Only 1.9 million of the many millions of species have been named and classified, making it difficult to use and conserve them. Molecular techniques combined with cladistic methods and high‐powered computing ability are producing predictive phylogenies of many groups of organisms and are bringing us closer to working out an accurate tree of life. Evolutionary development is a rapidly expanding field that is helping to explain the molecular mechanisms that control development processes. In future deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) barcoding of organisms is likely to be in general use to identify organisms, but it will not replace the study of the morphology of organisms. The data basing of large museum and herbarium collections is greatly enhancing the use of collections for systematics research. E‐alpha taxonomy using standardised descriptors is gradually gaining momentum.

Key Concepts:

  • Systematics and naming is basic to all other studies of organisms.

  • It is urgent to increase systematic work because of the continuing loss of species.

  • DNA barcoding is going to be an invaluable tool, but will not altogether replace morphological studies. It is most useful for linking different stages of organisms: seedlings with parent plants, larvae with adult insects.

  • Evolutionary development (Evo‐Devo) is helping our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of floral development and changes.

  • Phylogeography is helping to elucidate the historic movements of organisms around the world.

  • Modern systematics leads to predictive classifications which are most useful for the discovery of new useful chemicals in organisms.

  • Alpha taxonomy is still pertinent and necessary for the practical identification of species and for the users of taxonomy.

  • E‐alpha taxonomy is leading to a better standardisation of descriptors of organisms.

Keywords: systematics; molecular taxonomy; cladistics; phylogeny; phylogeography; barcoding; evolutionary development; classification; databases; alpha taxonomy

Figure 1.

This example of a cladogram shows the hypothesised phylogeny of the plant families belonging to the Caryophyllidae. The numbers below and above the branches are of measures that show the strength of each branch. Fitch branch lengths are above the branches and bootstrap percentages below the branches. These are statistical measurements of support for a particular group on the cladogram. The higher the number the more confidence there is in the group. Reproduced with permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

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Prance, Ghillean T(Jan 2011) Systematics: Relevance to the Twenty‐first Century. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0003608.pub2]