Fagales (Oak)

Abstract

The order Fagales is a well‐defined group of woody flowering plants with considerable economic and ecological importance. Common species include the alders, bayberries, beeches, beefwoods, chestnuts, hickories, oaks, walnuts and southern beeches.

Keywords: wind pollination; oaks; rosids; biogeography; angiosperms

Figure 1.

Phylogeny of extant and fossil Juglandaceae. The fruits of extant taxa depicted across the top are, from left to right: Engelhardia, Oreomunnea, Alfaroa, Platycarya, Carya, Cyclocarya, Pterocarya and Juglans. Extinct juglandaceous fruits based on their appearance in the fossil record are, from left to right and bottom to top: Casholdia microptera, Palaeocarya puryearensis, Paleooreomunnea stoneana, Paraengelhardia eocenica (Engelhardioideae); Platycarya americana; Paleoplatycarya wingii; Hooleya lata; Hooleya hermis (Juglandoideae: Platycaryeae); Polyptera manningi, Cyclocarya brownii, Cruciptera simsonii and Pterocarya macginitii (Juglandoideae: Juglandeae: Juglandinae).

Figure 2.

Distribution and biogeography for the major lineages of Nothofagus. (a) Trans‐Antarctic relationship between subgenera Nothofagus and Brassospora; hypothesized extinctions indicated with dashed lines and parentheses. (b) Trans‐Antarctic vicariant relationship within subgenus Fuscospora. (c) Trans‐Antarctic vicariant relationship within subgenus Lophozonia. Abbreviations: AUST: Australia; NC, New Caledonia; NG, New Guinea; NZ, New Zealand; SA, South America; TAS, Tasmania.

Figure 3.

Phylogeny of Fagales based on chloroplast DNA sequences showing hypothesized evolutionary origins of select morphological features. Genus/species numbers follow each family. Representative genera and common names are listed for most families.

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Further Reading

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Manos PS and Stanford AM (2001) The biogeography of Fagaceae: tracking the Tertiary history of temperate and subtropical forests of the Northern Hemisphere. International Journal of Plant Sciences 162 (S6): S77‐S93.

Manos PS, Zhou Z‐K and Cannon CH (2001) Systematics of Fagaceae: phylogenetic tests of reproductive trait evolution. International Journal of Plant Sciences 162: (6) 1361‐1379.

Manos PS and Stone DE (2001) Evolution, phylogeny, and systematics of the Juglandaceae. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 88: 231–262.

Nixon KC (1989) Origins of Fagaceae. In: Crane PR and Blackmore S (eds) Evolution Systematics and Fossil History of the Hamamelidae, vol. 2: ‘Higher’ Hamamelidae, pp. 23–44. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

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How to Cite close
Manos, Paul S(Mar 2002) Fagales (Oak). In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1038/npg.els.0003724]