Fagales (Oak)


The order Fagales is a well‐defined group of woody flowering plants with considerable economic and ecological importance. Common species include the alders, bayberries, beeches, beefwoods, chestnuts, hickories, oaks, walnuts and southern beeches.

Keywords: wind pollination; oaks; rosids; biogeography; angiosperms

Figure 1.

Phylogeny of extant and fossil Juglandaceae. The fruits of extant taxa depicted across the top are, from left to right: Engelhardia, Oreomunnea, Alfaroa, Platycarya, Carya, Cyclocarya, Pterocarya and Juglans. Extinct juglandaceous fruits based on their appearance in the fossil record are, from left to right and bottom to top: Casholdia microptera, Palaeocarya puryearensis, Paleooreomunnea stoneana, Paraengelhardia eocenica (Engelhardioideae); Platycarya americana; Paleoplatycarya wingii; Hooleya lata; Hooleya hermis (Juglandoideae: Platycaryeae); Polyptera manningi, Cyclocarya brownii, Cruciptera simsonii and Pterocarya macginitii (Juglandoideae: Juglandeae: Juglandinae).

Figure 2.

Distribution and biogeography for the major lineages of Nothofagus. (a) Trans‐Antarctic relationship between subgenera Nothofagus and Brassospora; hypothesized extinctions indicated with dashed lines and parentheses. (b) Trans‐Antarctic vicariant relationship within subgenus Fuscospora. (c) Trans‐Antarctic vicariant relationship within subgenus Lophozonia. Abbreviations: AUST: Australia; NC, New Caledonia; NG, New Guinea; NZ, New Zealand; SA, South America; TAS, Tasmania.

Figure 3.

Phylogeny of Fagales based on chloroplast DNA sequences showing hypothesized evolutionary origins of select morphological features. Genus/species numbers follow each family. Representative genera and common names are listed for most families.


Further Reading

Chen Z‐D, Manchester SR and Sun H‐Y (1999) Phylogeny and evolution of the Betulaceae as inferred from DNA sequences, morphology, and paleobotany. American Journal of Botany 86: 1168–1181.

Crane PR and Blackmore S (1989) Evolution, Systematics, and Fossil History of the Hamamelidae. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Cronquist A (1981) An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants. New York: Columbia University Press.

Dumolin‐Lapegue S, Demesure B, Fineschi S, Lecorre V and Petit RJ (1997) Phylogeographic structure of white oaks throughout the European continent. Genetics 146: 1475–1487.

Herendeen PS, Crane PR and Drinnan AN (1995) Fagaceous flowers, fruits and cupules from the Campanian (Late Cretaceous) of central Georgia, USA. International Journal of Plant Sciences 156: 93–116.

Hill RS and Read J (1991) A revised infrageneric classification of Nothofagus(Fagaceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 105: 37–72.

Kubitzki K, Rohwer JG and Bittrich V (1993) The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants, vol. II: Flowering Plants – Dicotyledons. Berlin: Springer‐Verlag.

Magallon S, Crane PR and Herendeen PS (1999) Phylogenetic pattern, diversity, and diversification of eudicots. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 86: 297–372.

Manchester SR (1987) The fossil history of the Juglandaceae. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Monographs 21: 1–137.

Manos PS (1997) Systematics of Nothofagus(Nothofagaceae) based on rDNA spacer sequences (ITS): taxonomic congruence with morphology and plastid sequences. American Journal of Botany 84: 1137–1155.

Manos PS and Steele KP (1997) Phylogenetic analyses of ‘higher’ Hamamelididae based on plastid sequence data. American Journal of Botany 84: 1407–1419.

Manos PS and Stanford AM (2001) The biogeography of Fagaceae: tracking the Tertiary history of temperate and subtropical forests of the Northern Hemisphere. International Journal of Plant Sciences 162 (S6): S77‐S93.

Manos PS, Zhou Z‐K and Cannon CH (2001) Systematics of Fagaceae: phylogenetic tests of reproductive trait evolution. International Journal of Plant Sciences 162: (6) 1361‐1379.

Manos PS and Stone DE (2001) Evolution, phylogeny, and systematics of the Juglandaceae. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 88: 231–262.

Nixon KC (1989) Origins of Fagaceae. In: Crane PR and Blackmore S (eds) Evolution Systematics and Fossil History of the Hamamelidae, vol. 2: ‘Higher’ Hamamelidae, pp. 23–44. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Qiu Y‐L, Chase MW, Hoot SB et al. (1998) Phylogenetics of the Hamamelidae and their allies: Parsimony analyses of nucleotide sequences of the plastid gene rbcL. International Journal of Plant Sciences 159: 891–905.

Sims HP, Herendeen S, Lupia R, Christopher RA and Crane PR (1999) Fossil flowers with Normapolles pollen from the Upper Cretaceous of southeastern North America. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynolology 106: 131–151.

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How to Cite close
Manos, Paul S(Mar 2002) Fagales (Oak). In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1038/npg.els.0003724]