Major Histocompatibility Complex Genes: Mouse H‐2

Abstract

Mouse major histocompatibility complex genes are arranged in a complex gene cluster – the H2 complex, coding for proteins either directly performing or associated with antigen presentation to T lymphocytes. The principal level of the regulation of the expression of H2 genes is the level of transcription. The major histocompatibility complex genes are the most polymorphic genes known, both within the coding and regulatory sequences. The genetic manipulation of H2 genes is very useful for creating mouse models of human immune‐related functions and pathologies. H2‐associated disease susceptibility is used as a model to understand similar human diseases.

Keywords: H2 genes; transcription regulation; polymorphism; gene targeting; disease models

Figure 1.

Complex H2‐mediated genetic aetiology of diabetic susceptibility in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse. The main susceptibility locus, Idd1, has two components – the H2‐Ag7 haplotype, with rather unusual presentation properties, that at the same time represents the only functional complex, because of a promoter mutation in the H2‐Eb gene. In addition, a second susceptibility locus, Idd16, was mapped telomeric to the Idd1. The Idd16 seems to be complex as well, possibly involving Tnf and H2‐D genes. The picture of the H2 complex was taken over from the article of Dr. RW Melvold, Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC): Mouse, Encyclopedia of Life Sciences, DOI: 10.1038/npg.els.0003989, with the author's kind permission.

Figure 2.

A comparative schema of principal regulatory elements acting on H2 class I (exemplified by H2‐Kb) and class II (exemplified by H2‐Ea) genes. Coding exons are represented by black boxes, introns by open boxes and untranslated regions are given in grey. Regulatory sequences that were at least partially characterized are put above the respective genes; deduced regulatory regions of the H2‐Kb gene for which direct evidence is missing are put below. Not all regulatory elements must be operating in other H2 class I and class II genes. For details see text.

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Hatina, Jiří(Jul 2008) Major Histocompatibility Complex Genes: Mouse H‐2. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0004115]