Matrix‐associated Regions (MARs) and Scaffold Attachment Regions (SARs)


Matrix‐associated regions and scaffold attachment regions are eukaryotic deoxyribonucleic acid sequence elements that can selectively bind isolated nuclear matrix in the presence of a vast excess of competitor prokaryotic DNA. They are thought to participate in chromatin loop anchorage to the nuclear matrix, although this supposition lacks direct experimental proof.

Keywords: nuclear matrix; nuclear scaffold; DNA loop anchorage regions; chromatin domain bordering elements


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Further Reading

Benham C, Kohwi‐Shigematsu T and Bode J (1997) Stress‐induced duplex DNA destabilisation in scaffold/matrix attachment regions. Journal of Molecular Biology 274: 181–196.

Bode J, Benham C, Knopp A and Mielke C (2000) Transcriptional augmentation: modulation of gene expression by scaffold/matrix‐attached regions. Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression 10: 73–90.

Bode J, Stengert‐Iber M, Schlake T and Dietz‐Pfeilstetter A (1996) Scaffold/matrix‐attached regions: topological switches with multiple regulatory functions. Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression 6: 115–138.

Forrester WC, Fernandez LA and Grosschedl R (1999) Nuclear matrix attachment regions antagonize methylation‐dependent repression of long‐range enhancer–promoter interactions. Genes and Development 13: 3003–3014.

Hart CM and Laemmli UK (1998) Facilitation of chromatin dynamics by SARs. Current Opinion in Genetics and Development 8: 519–525.

Jenuwein T, Forrester WC, Fernandez‐Herrero LA, et al. (1997) Extension of chromatin accessibility by nuclear matrix attachment regions. Nature 385: 269–272.

Namciu SJ, Blochlinger KB and Fournier RE (1998) Human matrix attachment regions insulate transgene expression from chromosomal position effects in Drosophila melanogaster. Molecular Cell Biology 18: 2382–2391.

Poljak L, Seum C, Mattioni T and Laemmli UK (1994) SARs stimulate but do not confer position independent gene expression. Nucleic Acids Research 22: 4386–4394.

Scheuermann RH and Garrard WT (1999) MARs of antigen receptor and co‐receptor genes. Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression 9: 295–310.

Swedlow JR and Hirano T (1996) Fuzzy sequences, specific attachments? Chromosome dynamics. Current Biology 6: 544–547.

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How to Cite close
Razin, Sergey V(Sep 2005) Matrix‐associated Regions (MARs) and Scaffold Attachment Regions (SARs). In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. [doi: 10.1038/npg.els.0005035]