Glutamate Receptors

Abstract

Glutamate receptors mediate most of the excitatory neurotransmission in the central nervous system. They are also involved in plastic changes in synaptic transmission and neuronal cell death in a variety of acute and chronic neurological disorders. Twenty‚Äźfive subunit complementary DNAs have been cloned in rodent brains and 24 genes have been identified in the human genome.

Keywords: AMPA; kainate; NMDA; orphan; metabotropic receptor

Figure 1.

Structure of glutamate receptors. Glutamate receptors are divided into two categories; ionotropic receptors (left) and metabotropic receptors (right). The ionotropic receptors constitute multisubunit protein complexes that form ligand‐gated ion channels and allow cation flow through the cell membrane. Ionotropic receptors subunits have a large extracellular N‐terminal domain and four hydrophobic domains (M1–M4). M1, M3 and M4 are transmembrane domains, whereas M2 makes a cytoplasm‐facing reentrant membrane loop and does not span the membrane. In contrast, metabotropic receptors are single‐subunit proteins coupled to GTP‐binding proteins. They have a large N‐terminal region, seven transmembrane domains and a C‐terminus.

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References

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Further Reading

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Chen C and Tonegawa S (1997) Molecular genetic analysis of synaptic plasticity, activity‐dependent neural development, learning, and memory in the mammalian brain. Annual Review of Neuroscience 20: 157–184.

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Web Links

National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/

Glutamate receptor, ionotropic, AMPA 1 (GRIA1); Locus ID: 2890. LocusLink: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/LocusLink/LocRpt.cgi?l=2890

Glutamate receptor, ionotropic, delta 1 (GRID1); Locus ID: 2894. LocusLink: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/LocusLink/LocRpt.cgi?l=2894

Glutamate receptor, ionotropic, kainate 1 (GRIK1); Locus ID: 2897. LocusLink: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/LocusLink/LocRpt.cgi?l=2897

Glutamate receptor, ionotropic, N‐methyl D‐aspartate 1 (GRIN1); Locus ID: 2902. LocusLink: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/LocusLink/LocRpt.cgi?l=2902

Glutamate receptor, metabotropic 1 (GRM1); Locus ID: 2911. LocusLink: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/LocusLink/LocRpt.cgi?l=2911

Glutamate receptor, ionotropic, AMPA 1 (GRIA1); MIM number: 138248. OMIM: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/LocusLink/LocRpt.cgi?l=2911

Glutamate receptor, ionotropic, kainate 1 (GRIK1); MIM number: 138245. OMIM: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/htbin‐post/Omim/dispmim?138245

Glutamate receptor, ionotropic, N‐methyl D‐aspartate 1 (GRIN1); MIM number: 138249. OMIM: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/htbin‐post/Omim/dispmim?138249

Glutamate receptor, metabotropic 1 (GRM1); MIM number: 604473. OMIM: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/htbin‐post/Omim/dispmim?604473

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How to Cite close
Tsuzuki, Keisuke, and Ozawa, Seiji(Sep 2005) Glutamate Receptors. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1038/npg.els.0005056]