Exons: Shuffling

Abstract

Exon shuffling through recombination in spliceosomal introns had a major role in the evolution of multidomain proteins associated with multicellularity of metazoa.

Keywords: intronic recombination; chimeric gene; exon duplication; exon insertion; spliceosomal intron

References

Babcock M, Pavlicek A, Spiteri E et al. (2003) Shuffling of genes within low‐copy repeats on 22q11 (LCR22) by Alu‐mediated recombination events during evolution. Genome Research 13: 2519–2532.

Cavalier‐Smith T (1985) Selfish DNA and the origin of introns. Nature 315: 283–284.

Cavalier‐Smith T (1991) Intron phylogeny: a new hypothesis. Trends in Genetics 7: 145–148.

Ejima Y and Yang L (2003) Trans mobilization of genomic DNA as a mechanism for retrotransposon‐mediated exon shuffling. Human Moecular Genetics 12: 1321–1328.

Gilbert W (1978) Why are genes in pieces? Nature 271: 501.

Gilbert W and Glynias M (1993) On the ancient nature of introns. Gene 135: 137–144.

Jones JM, Huang JD, Mermall V et al. (2000) The mouse neurological mutant flailer expresses a novel hybrid gene derived by exon shuffling between Gnb5 and Myo5a. Human Molecular Genetics 9: 821–828.

Moran JV, DeBerardinis RJ and Kazazian HH Jr. (1999) Exon shuffling by L1 retrotransposition. Science 283: 1530–1534.

Nisole S, Lynch C, Stoye JP and Yap MW (2004) A Trim5‐cyclophilin A fusion protein found in owl monkey kidney cells can restrict HIV‐1. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 101: 13324–13328.

Palmer JD and Logsdon JM Jr. (1991) The recent origins of introns. Current Opinion in Genetics & Development 1: 470–477.

Patthy L (1987) Intron‐dependent evolution: preferred types of exons and introns. FEBS Letters 214: 1–7.

Patthy L (1991) Modular exchange principles in proteins. Current Opinion in Structural Biology 1: 351–361.

Patthy L (1994) Exons and introns. Current Opinion in Structural Biology 4: 383–392.

Patthy L (1996) Exon‐shuffling and other ways of module‐exchange. Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology 15: 301–310.

Patthy L (1999) Genome evolution and the evolution of exon‐shuffling: a review. Gene 238: 103–114.

Patthy L (2003) Modular assembly of genes and the evolution of new functions. Genetica 118: 217–231.

Rozmahel R, Heng HH, Duncan AM et al. (1997) Amplification of CFTR exon 9 sequences to multiple locations in the human genome. Genomics 45: 554–561.

Sayah DM, Sokolskaja E, Berthoux L and Luban J (2004) Cyclophilin A retrotransposition into TRIM5 explains owl monkey resistance to HIV‐1. Nature 430: 569–573.

Schmidt EE and Davies CJ (2007) The origins of polypeptide domains. BioEssays 29: 262–270.

Sharp PA (1994) Split genes and RNA splicing. Cell 77: 805–815.

Steiner F, Weber K and Furst DO (1999) M band proteins myomesin and skelemin are encoded by the same gene: analysis of its organization and expression. Genomics 56: 78–89.

Tordai H, Nagy A, Farkas K, Banyai L and Patthy L (2005) Modules, multidomain proteins and organismic complexity. FEBS Journal 272: 5064–5078.

Xing J, Wang H, Belancio VP et al. (2006) Emergence of primate genes by retrotransposon‐mediated sequence transduction. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 103: 17608–17613.

Yang J, Brown MS, Ho YK and Goldstein JL (1995) Three different rearrangements in a single intron truncate sterol regulatory element binding protein‐2 and produce sterol‐resistant phenotype in three cell lines: role of introns in protein evolution. Journal of Biological Chemistry 270: 12152–12161.

Zhang XH and Chasin LA (2006) Comparison of multiple vertebrate genomes reveals the birth and evolution of human exons. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 103: 13427–13432.

Further Reading

Doolittle WF (1978) Genes in pieces: were they ever together? Nature 272: 581–582.

Logsdon JM (1998) The recent origins of spliceosomal introns revisited. Current Opinion in Genetics & Development 8: 637–648.

Patthy L (1995) Protein Evolution by Exon Shuffling. New York: Springer.

Patthy L (1999, 2007) Protein Evolution. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science.

Sharp PA (1985) On the origin of RNA splicing and introns. Cell 42: 397–400.

Contact Editor close
Submit a note to the editor about this article by filling in the form below.

* Required Field

How to Cite close
Patthy, László(Apr 2008) Exons: Shuffling. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0005087.pub2]