Reading and Dyslexias

Abstract

Specific reading disability (dyslexia) is an unexplained difficulty in learning to read and spell despite adequate intelligence and opportunity and without demonstrable sensory or neurologic handicap. Twin and family studies have demonstrated a genetic component to the variation in reading ability, and gene localization studies have identified several candidate regions, with strongest support for a gene at 6p21.3.

Keywords: specific reading disability; linkage; association; dyslexia; quantitative trait

Figure 1.

Maps of markers that have been associated with dyslexia. Only partial maps are presented, covering the regions and relevant markers that have been reported as showing significant or suggestive linkage. Maps are oriented with the p terminus (pter) to the left. The position of the markers in cM from pter is taken from Grigorenko et al. for chromosome 1 markers. For chromosome 6 markers, the order and relative distances were determined by analysis of the draft and finished sequence available from the Sanger Centre (http://www.sanger.ac.uk/HGP/Chr6/), and confirmed against the Marshfield map available on the website of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/guide/human/). The chromosome 15 map is adapted from Morris et al. and from the Marshfield map.

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Further Reading

De Fries JC and Alarcón M (1996) Genetics of specific reading disability. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews 2: 39–47.

De Fries JC and Gillis JJ (1993) Genetics of reading disability. In: Plomin R and McClearn G (eds.) Nature, Nurture, and Psychology, pp. 121–145. Washington, DC: APA Press

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Smith, Shelley D, Deffenbacher, Karen E, and Brower, Amy M(Jul 2006) Reading and Dyslexias. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1038/npg.els.0005144]