Sexual Orientation: Genetics

Abstract

Research into a possible genetic basis for homosexuality has suggested the role of an as yet undiscovered gene localized to the q28 region of the X chromosome. However, this suggestion is controversial for a number of reasons, and the matter is unlikely to be resolved without a considerable amount of additional research.

Keywords: sexual orientation; homosexuality; twins; Xq28

References

Bailey J and Dawood K (1998) Behavioral genetics, sexual orientation, and the family. In: Patterson CJ and D'Augelli AR (eds.) Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Identities in Families: Psychological Perspectives, pp. 3–18. New York, NY: Oxford University Press

Bailey J, Dunne MP and Martin NG (2000) Genetic and environmental influences on sexual orientation and its correlates in an Australian twin sample. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 78(3): 524–536.

Bailey J and Pillard RC (1991) A genetic study of male sexual orientation. Archives of General Psychiatry 48(12): 1089–1096.

Bailey J, Pillard RC, Dawood K, et al. (1999) A family history study of male sexual orientation using three independent samples. Behavior Genetics 29(2): 79–86.

Bailey J, Pillard RC, Neale MC and Agyei Y (1993) Heritable factors influence sexual orientation in women. Archives of General Psychiatry 50: 217–223.

Bailey J and Zucker KJ (1995) Childhood sex‐typed behavior and sexual orientation: a conceptual analysis and quantitative review. Developmental Psychology 31(1): 43–55.

Bell A and Weinberg M (1978) Homosexualities: A Study of Diversity Among Men and Women. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.

Blanchard R (2001) Fraternal birth order and the maternal immune hypothesis of male homosexuality. Hormones and Behavior 40(2): 105–114.

Bradley SJ, Oliver GD, Chernick AB and Zucker KJ (1998) Experiment of nurture: ablatio penis at 2 months, sex reassignment at 7 months, and a psychosexual follow‐up in young adulthood. Pediatrics 102(1): e9.

Byne W (1994) The biological evidence challenged. Scientific American May: 50–55.

Diamond M and Sigmundson HK (1997) Sex reassignment at birth. Long‐term review and clinical implications. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 151(3): 298–304.

Ellis L and Ames MA (1987) Neurohormonal functioning and sexual orientation: a theory of homosexuality–heterosexuality. Psychological Bulletin 10(2): 233–258.

Hamer DH, Hu S, Magnuson VL, Hu N and Pattatucci AML (1993) A linkage between DNA markers on the X chromosome and male sexual orientation. Science 261(5119): 321–327.

Hu S, Pattatucci AML, Patterson C, et al. (1995) Linkage between sexual orientation and chromosome Xq28 in males but not in females. Nature Genetics 11: 248–256.

Kallmann FJ (1952) Twin and sibship study of overt male homosexuality. American Journal of Human Genetics 4: 136–146.

Kendler KS, Thornton LM, Gilman SE and Kessler RC (2000) Sexual orientation in a U.S. national sample of twin and nontwin sibling pairs. American Journal of Psychiatry 157(11): 1843–1846.

Kinsey AC, Pomeroy WB, Martin CE and Gebhard PH (1953) Sexual Behavior in the Human Female. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders.

Laumann EO, Gagnon JH, Michael RT and Michaels S (1994) The Social Organization of Sexuality: Sexual Practices in the United States, pp. 283–320. Chigago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Rice G, Anderson C, Risch N and Ebers G (1999) Male homosexuality: absence of linkage to microsatellite markers at Xq28. Science 284(5414): 665–667.

Risch N, Squires‐Wheeler E and Keats BJB (1993) Male sexual orientation and genetic evidence. Science 262: 2063–2065.

Rosenthal D (1970) Genetic Theory and Abnormal behavior. New York, NY: McGraw‐Hill.

Contact Editor close
Submit a note to the editor about this article by filling in the form below.

* Required Field

How to Cite close
Bailey, J Michael(Jul 2006) Sexual Orientation: Genetics. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1038/npg.els.0005155]