DNA Replication


Deoxyribonucleic acid replication is the process leading to the duplication of genetic material in an organism.

Keywords: DNA replication; replication origin; origin structure; initiator protein; cruciform

Figure 1.

The principal elements of eukaryotic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) replication origins (ori). The minimal ori or ‘core’ element consists of: a DNA unwinding element (DUE) that is easily unwound; an origin recognition element (ORE), which is bound by the initiator protein(s) (IPs), including the Ku protein; an AT‐rich sequence (AT), where DNA bending occurs and an inverted repeat (IR) sequence that has the potential of extruding into a cruciform conformation and as such is bound by a cruciform‐binding protein (CBP), which in human cells was identified as belonging to the 14‐3‐3 protein family. The position of the AT and DUE elements with respect to ORE and IR elements indicates only their inclusion within a predicted core. The core element is flanked by the auxiliary components (Aux), which are binding sites of transcription factors that are specific to particular replication systems and influence the initiation of DNA replication, through their interaction with origin‐binding proteins and other replication proteins. (Adapted from DePamphilis ML (1993) Annual Review of Biochemistry62: 29–63, and based on data regarding mammalian replication oris, described by Novac et al., ).



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Further Reading

DePamphilis ML (1999) Replication origins in metazoan chromosomes: fact or fiction? BioEssays 21: 5–16.

Kelly TJ and Brown GW (2000) Regulation of chromosome replication. Annual Review of Biochemistry 69: 829–880.

Malkas LH (1998) DNA replication machinery of the mammalian cell. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 30: 18–29.

Méchali M (2001) DNA replication origins: from sequence specificity to epigenetics. Nature Reviews. Genetics 2: 640–645.

Pearson CE, Zorbas H, Price GB and Zannis‐Hadjopoulos M (1996) Inverted repeats, stem‐loops, and cruciforms: significance for initiation of DNA replication. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 63: 1–22.

Quintana DG and Dutta A (1999) The metazoan origin recognition complex. Frontiers in Bioscience 4: 805–815.

Stillman B (1996) Comparison of DNA replication in cells from Prokarya and Eukarya. In: DePamphilis ML (ed.) DNA Replication in Eukaryotic Cells. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

Tuteja R and Tuteja N (2000) Ku autoantigen: a multifunctional DNA‐binding protein. Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 35: 1–33.

Zannis‐Hadjopoulos M and Price GB (1998) Regulatory parameters of DNA replication. Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression 8: 81–106.

Zannis‐Hadjopoulos M and Price GB (1999) Eukaryotic DNA replication. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry Supplements 32: 1–14.

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Zannis‐Hadjopoulos, Maria(Dec 2007) DNA Replication. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0005282.pub2]