Chromosome 22: Sequencing

Abstract

The method of sequencing of human chromosome 22 has implications for sequencing the rest of the human genome.

Keywords: DNA sequencing; chromosome 22; human genome; genes

Figure 1.

Relationship between physical and genetic distance. The sex‐averaged genetic distances of Dib et al. were obtained from ftp://ftp.genethon.fr/pub/Gmap/Nature‐1995/ and the cumulative intermarker distances for unambiguously ordered markers (in cM) were plotted against the positions of the microsatellite markers in the genomic sequence. It should be stressed that the y‐axis does not represent the true genetic distance between distant markers but the sum of the local intermarker distances. The positions of selected genetic markers are labeled. The shaded columns are indicative of areas of relatively increased recombination per unit physical distance. (Reproduced from Dunham I, Hunt AR, Collins JE, et al. (1999) The DNA sequence of human chromosome 22. Nature402: 489–495.)

Figure 2.

Illustration of the sequence composition of seven LCR22 repeats. The span of each LCR22 region is shown in megabases from the centromere. Arrows indicate the extent of one of the 13 genomic repeat regions and the orientation of the repeat. The known gene and marker content of these genomic repeat regions is indicated in the key. The oval indicates the position of the gap in the sequence in LCR22‐3.

Figure 3.

Regions of conserved synteny between human chromosome 22 and the mouse genome. Regions of mouse chromosomes with conserved synteny to human chromosome 22 are shown as adjacent blocks, determined by the mouse map position of mouse orthologs to human chromosome 22 genes. The size of human chromosome 22 corresponding to each mouse chromosomal region is indicated in kilobases (kb), as well as the size of the gap between the last ortholog in each conserved block. These data are available on the Sanger Institute Web Site (see Web Links).

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References

Collins JE, Cole CG, Smink LJ, et al. (1995) A high‐density YAC contig map of human chromosome 22. Nature 377: 367–379.

Deloukas P, Schuler GD, Gyapay G, et al. (1998) A physical map of 30,000 human genes. Science 282: 744–746.

Dunham I (2000) The gene guessing game. Yeast 17: 218–224.

Dunham I, Hunt AR, Collins JE, et al. (1999) The DNA sequence of human chromosome 22. Nature 402: 489–495.

Hattori M, Fujiyama A, Taylor TD, et al. (2000) The DNA sequence of human chromosome 21. Nature 405: 311–319.

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Further Reading

Green ED, Birren B, Klapholz S, Myers RM and Hieter P (eds.) (1997) Genome Analysis: A Laboratory Manual. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

Nature (2001) Special issue: the human genome. Nature 409(6822).

Science (2001) Special issue: the human genome. Science 291(5507).

Web Links

Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man Cat‐eye syndrome http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/htbin‐post/Omim/dispmim?115470

Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man DiGeorge syndrome http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/htbin‐post/Omim/dispmim?188400

Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man Velocardiofacial syndrome http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/htbin‐post/Omim/dispmim?192430

The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute Human chromosome 22 mouse synteny http://www.sanger.ac.uk/HGP/Chr22/Mouse/

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How to Cite close
Dunham, Ian(Sep 2005) Chromosome 22: Sequencing. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1038/npg.els.0005387]