Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics

Abstract

Between 1930 and 1990, several dozen high‐penetrance predominantly monogenic (hPpM) disorders in drug metabolism were identified and characterized, leading many to expect that the field of pharmacogenetics would very soon be able to provide us with ‘individualized drug therapy’. However, then came the Human Genome Project and the field of pharmacogenomics. We now realize that the genome is exceedingly complex and that the likelihood of ever achieving individualized drug therapy – for every person and every drug – is not scientifically or financially feasible. Perhaps genomics – in combination with transcriptomics, proteomics and metabonomics – will provide some degree of success, within the next several decades.

Keywords: drug metabolism; transporters; receptors; signal transduction pathways; polymorphisms; human populations

Figure 1.

Schematic diagram illustrating how pharmacogenomics (differential displays of genes, genome expression patterns) might aid in the design of new drugs, as well as in our better understanding of the etiology of drug efficacy, therapeutic failure or drug toxicity.

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References

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Further Reading

Ferraro TN, Dlugos DJ and Buono RJ (2006) Challenges and opportunities in the application of pharmacogenetics to antiepileptic drug therapy. Pharmacogenomics 7: 89–103.

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Nebert, Daniel W(Apr 2008) Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0005558.pub2]