Human Cloning


Cloning means producing genetically identical organisms, identical either to each other or to some preexisting organism. Human cloning could be used to produce early embryos genetically identical to a patient, in order to derive immunologically compatible stem cells for the treatment of the patient's disease (therapeutic cloning); or, if cloned embryos were transferred to a woman's uterus, they could produce babies genetically identical to each other or to some progenitor (reproductive cloning).

Keywords: embryo splitting; nuclear transfer; stem cells; reproductive cloning; therapeutic cloning


Thompson JA, Itskovitz‐Eldor J, Shapiro SS, Waknitz MA, Swiergiel JJ, Marshall VS and Jones JM (1998) Embryonic stem cell lines derived from human blastocysts. Science 282: 1145–1147.

Wakayama T, Perry ACF, Zuccotti M, Johnson KR and Yanagimachi R (1998) Full‐term development of mice from enucleated oocytes injected with cumulus cell nuclei. Nature 394: 369–374.

Willadsen SM (1986) Nuclear transplantation in sheep embryos. Nature 320: 63–65.

Wilmut I, Schnieke AE, McWhir J, Kind AJ and Campbell KHS (1997) Viable offspring derived from fetal and adult mammalian cells. Nature 385: 810–813.

Further Reading

Burley J and Harris J (1999) Human cloning and child welfare. Journal of Medical Ethics 25: 108–113.

Department of Health (2000) Stem Cell Research with Responsibility (The Donaldson Report). London, UK: TSO.

Griffin H (1998) Cloning and nuclear transfer – on proposals to clone human. Roslin Institute Online. []

Human Genetics Advisory Commission and Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (1998) Cloning Issues in Reproduction, Science and Medicine. London, UK: Department of Trade and Industry.

Huxley A (1932) Brave New World. London, UK: Flamingo Press.

Kawase E, Yamazaki Y, Pedersen RA and Yanagimachi R (2000) Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell lines established from neuronal cell‐derived cloned blastocysts. Genesis 28: 156–163.

Kind A and Colman A (1999) Therapeutic cloning: needs and prospects. Cell and Developmental Biology 10: 279–286.

McLaren A (2000) Cloning: pathways to a pluripotent future. Science 288: 1775–1780.

National Bioethics Advisory Commission (1997) Cloning Human Beings: Report and Recommendations. Rockville, MD: US Government Printing Office.

National Bioethics Advisory Commission (1999) Ethical Issues in Human Stem Cell Research, vol. 1. Rockville, MD: US Government Printing Office.

Williamson R (1999) Human reproductive cloning is unethical because it undermines autonomy. Journal of Medical Ethics 25: 96–97.

Wilmut I, Campbell KHS and Tudge C (2000) The Second Creation: The Age of Biological Control. London, UK: Headline.

Web Links

OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man)


AR (androgen receptor (dihydrotestosterone receptor; testicular feminization; spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy; Kennedy disease)); LocusID: 367. LocusLink:

FGFR3 (fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (achondroplasia, thanatophoric dwarfism)); LocusID: 2261. LocusLink:

HGD (homogentisate 1, 2‐dioxygenase (homogentisate oxidase)); LocusID: 3081. LocusLink:

PAH (phenylalanine hydroxylase); LocusID: 5053. LocusLink:

AR (androgen receptor (dihydrotestosterone receptor; testicular feminization; spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy; Kennedy disease)); MIM number: 313700. OMIM:‐post/Omim/dispmim?313700

FGFR3 (fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (achondroplasia, thanatophoric dwarfism)); MIM number: 134934. OMIM:‐post/Omim/dispmim?134934

HGD (homogentisate 1,2‐dioxygenase (homogentisate oxidase)); MIM number: 203500. OMIM:‐post/Omim/dispmim?203500

PAH (phenylalanine hydroxylase); MIM number: 261600. OMIM:‐post/Omim/dispmim?261600

Roslin Institute Web Site

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How to Cite close
McLaren, Anne(Sep 2006) Human Cloning. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. [doi: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0005597]