Human Cloning

Abstract

Cloning means producing genetically identical organisms, identical either to each other or to some preexisting organism. Human cloning could be used to produce early embryos genetically identical to a patient, in order to derive immunologically compatible stem cells for the treatment of the patient's disease (therapeutic cloning); or, if cloned embryos were transferred to a woman's uterus, they could produce babies genetically identical to each other or to some progenitor (reproductive cloning).

Keywords: embryo splitting; nuclear transfer; stem cells; reproductive cloning; therapeutic cloning

References

Thompson JA, Itskovitz‐Eldor J, Shapiro SS, Waknitz MA, Swiergiel JJ, Marshall VS and Jones JM (1998) Embryonic stem cell lines derived from human blastocysts. Science 282: 1145–1147.

Wakayama T, Perry ACF, Zuccotti M, Johnson KR and Yanagimachi R (1998) Full‐term development of mice from enucleated oocytes injected with cumulus cell nuclei. Nature 394: 369–374.

Willadsen SM (1986) Nuclear transplantation in sheep embryos. Nature 320: 63–65.

Wilmut I, Schnieke AE, McWhir J, Kind AJ and Campbell KHS (1997) Viable offspring derived from fetal and adult mammalian cells. Nature 385: 810–813.

Further Reading

Burley J and Harris J (1999) Human cloning and child welfare. Journal of Medical Ethics 25: 108–113.

Department of Health (2000) Stem Cell Research with Responsibility (The Donaldson Report). London, UK: TSO.

Griffin H (1998) Cloning and nuclear transfer – on proposals to clone human. Roslin Institute Online. [www.roslin.ac.uk]

Human Genetics Advisory Commission and Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (1998) Cloning Issues in Reproduction, Science and Medicine. London, UK: Department of Trade and Industry.

Huxley A (1932) Brave New World. London, UK: Flamingo Press.

Kawase E, Yamazaki Y, Pedersen RA and Yanagimachi R (2000) Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell lines established from neuronal cell‐derived cloned blastocysts. Genesis 28: 156–163.

Kind A and Colman A (1999) Therapeutic cloning: needs and prospects. Cell and Developmental Biology 10: 279–286.

McLaren A (2000) Cloning: pathways to a pluripotent future. Science 288: 1775–1780.

National Bioethics Advisory Commission (1997) Cloning Human Beings: Report and Recommendations. Rockville, MD: US Government Printing Office.

National Bioethics Advisory Commission (1999) Ethical Issues in Human Stem Cell Research, vol. 1. Rockville, MD: US Government Printing Office.

Williamson R (1999) Human reproductive cloning is unethical because it undermines autonomy. Journal of Medical Ethics 25: 96–97.

Wilmut I, Campbell KHS and Tudge C (2000) The Second Creation: The Age of Biological Control. London, UK: Headline.

Web Links

OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Omim/

Tetrahydrobiopterin http://www.bh4.org

AR (androgen receptor (dihydrotestosterone receptor; testicular feminization; spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy; Kennedy disease)); LocusID: 367. LocusLink: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/LocusLink/LocRpt.cgi?l=367

FGFR3 (fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (achondroplasia, thanatophoric dwarfism)); LocusID: 2261. LocusLink: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/LocusLink/LocRpt.cgi?l=2261

HGD (homogentisate 1, 2‐dioxygenase (homogentisate oxidase)); LocusID: 3081. LocusLink: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/LocusLink/LocRpt.cgi?l=3081

PAH (phenylalanine hydroxylase); LocusID: 5053. LocusLink: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/LocusLink/LocRpt.cgi?l=5053

AR (androgen receptor (dihydrotestosterone receptor; testicular feminization; spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy; Kennedy disease)); MIM number: 313700. OMIM: http://www3.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/htbin‐post/Omim/dispmim?313700

FGFR3 (fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (achondroplasia, thanatophoric dwarfism)); MIM number: 134934. OMIM: http://www3.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/htbin‐post/Omim/dispmim?134934

HGD (homogentisate 1,2‐dioxygenase (homogentisate oxidase)); MIM number: 203500. OMIM: http://www3.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/htbin‐post/Omim/dispmim?203500

PAH (phenylalanine hydroxylase); MIM number: 261600. OMIM: http://www3.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/htbin‐post/Omim/dispmim?261600

Roslin Institute Web Site http://www.roslin.ac.uk

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How to Cite close
McLaren, Anne(Sep 2006) Human Cloning. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0005597]