Romanov Family


The bodies of the last Russian royal family were recovered in 1991. Genetic markers have had an impact on their lives, deaths and identification.

Keywords: hemophilia; mtDNA; genetic identification; Rasputin; forensic DNA


Gill P, Ivanov PL, Kimpton C, et al. (1994) Identification of the remains of the Romanov family by DNA analysis. Nature Genetics 6: 130–135.

Holland MM, Fisher DL, Mitchell LG, et al. (1993) Mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis of human skeletal remains: identification of remains from the Vietnam war. Journal of Forensic Sciences 38(3): 542–553.

Ivanov PL, Wadhams MJ, Roby RK, et al. (1996) Mitochondrial DNA sequence heteroplasmy in the Grand Duke of Russia Georgij Romanov establishes the authenticity of the remains of Tsar Nicholas II. Nature Genetics 12(4): 417–420.

Massie RK (1995) The Romanovs: The Final Chapter. New York, NY: Random House.

Radzinsky E (2000) The Rasputin File. New York, NY: Anchor Books.

Stevens RF (1999) The history of haemophilia in the royal families of Europe. British Journal of Haematology 105: 25–32.

Further Reading

Ivanov PL (1998) The expert identification of the remains of the imperial family by means of molecular genetic verification of genealogical relations.[In Russian.] Sudebno‐Meditsinskaia Ekspertiza (Moskva) 41(4): 30–47.

Stoneking M, Melton T, Nott J, et al. (1995) Establishing the identity of Anna Anderson Manahan. Nature Genetics 9: 9–10.

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How to Cite close
Edson, Suni M(Sep 2006) Romanov Family. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. [doi: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0005614]