Clinical Genetics and Genetic Counseling Professionals: Attitudes to Contentious Issues

Abstract

Clinical genetics includes patient education, psychosocial counseling, genetic testing and screening, prenatal diagnosis and treatment. Providers include medical doctors, PhDs and specially trained genetic counselors with Master's degrees, who face ethically controversial situations in interactions with patients.

Keywords: ethics; international surveys; patient attitudes; counseling approaches; disclosure to family; sex selection; deaf selection; disability

References

American Medical Association Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs (1995) Testing Children for Genetic Status. Code of Medical Ethics, Report 66. Chicago, IL: American Medical Association.

American Society of Human Genetics Board of Directors and American College of Medical Genetics Board of Directors (1995) Points to consider: ethical, legal and psychosocial implications of genetic testing in children and adolescents. American Journal of Human Genetics 57: 1233–1236.

American Society of Human Genetics Social Issues Subcommittee on Familial Disclosures (1998) Professional disclosure of familial genetic information. American Journal of Human Genetics 62: 474–483.

Clinical Genetics Society (1998) The genetic testing of children: report of a working party of the Clinical Genetics Society. In: Clarke A (ed.) The Genetic Testing of Children, pp. 289–319. Oxford, UK: Bios Scientific Publishing.

Fraser FC (1974) Genetic counseling. American Journal of Human Genetics 26: 636–661.

Institute of Medicine (1994) Assessing Genetic Risks. Washington DC: National Academy Press.

Reed S (1947) A short history of genetic counseling. Social Biology 21: 332–339.

US President's Commission on Ethical Issues in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research (1983) Screening and Counseling for Genetic Conditions. Washington DC: US Government Printing Office.

Wertz DC (1989) The 19‐nation survey: ethics and genetics around the world. In: Wertz DC and Fletcher JC (eds.) Ethics and Human Genetics: A Cross‐cultural Perspective, pp. 1–79. Berlin, Germany: Springer‐Verlag.

Wertz DC and Knoppers BM (2002) ‘Serious’ genetic disorders: can or should they be defined? American Journal of Medical Genetics 108: 29–35.

WHO (1998) Proposed International Guidelines on Ethical Issues in Medical Genetics and Genetic Services. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization Genetics Programme.

Further Reading

Clarke A (ed.) (1998) The Genetic Testing of Children. Oxford, UK: Bios Scientific Publishing.

Green RM (1997) Parental autonomy and the obligation not to harm one's child genetically. Journal of Law, Medicine, and Ethics 25: 5–15.

Institute of Medicine (1994) Assessing Genetic Risks. Washington DC: National Academy Press.

Kitcher P (1996) The Lives to Come: The Genetic Revolution and Human Possibilities. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.

Wertz DC (1998) Eugenics is alive and well. Science in Context 11: 493–510. [Special issue on eugenic thought and practice.]

Wertz DC (2000a) Drawing lines: notes for policymakers. In: Parens E and Asch A (eds.) Prenatal Testing and Disability Rights, pp. 261–287. Washington DC: Georgetown University Press.

Wertz DC (2000b) Society and the not‐so‐new genetics. In: Miller FG (ed.) Frontiers in Bioethics: Essays Dedicated to John C Fletcher, pp. 1–44. Hagerstown, MD: University Publishing Group.

Wertz DC and Fletcher JC (eds.) (1989) Ethics and Human Genetics: A Cross‐cultural Perspective. Berlin, Germany: Springer‐Verlag.

Wertz DC and Fletcher JC (1998) Ethical and social issues in prenatal sex selection: a survey of geneticists in 37 nations. Social Science and Medicine 46: 255–273.

WHO (2001) Review of Ethical Issues in Medical Genetics: Report of WHO Advisors DC Wertz, JC Fletcher, K Berg. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization Genetics Programme.

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How to Cite close
Wertz, Dorothy C(Sep 2006) Clinical Genetics and Genetic Counseling Professionals: Attitudes to Contentious Issues. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0005629]