Keratins and Keratin Diseases

Abstract

Keratins are intermediate filament proteins responsible for the structural integrity of epithelial cells. They comprise a large multigene family present in clusters in the human genome. Mutations in keratins cause a variety of human genodermatoses.

Keywords: keratin; keratin‐associated proteins; gene; expression; review; structure proteins

Figure 1.

Schematic diagram of an anagen hair follicle with adjacent epidermis.

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References

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Langbein L, Rogers MA, Praetzel S, et al. (2002) A novel epithelial keratin, hK6irs1, is expressed differentially in all layers of the inner root sheath, including specialized Huxley cells (‘Flügelzellen’) of the human hair follicle. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 118: 789–799.

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Langbein L, Rogers MA, Winter H, et al. (1999) The catalog of human hair keratins: I. Expression of the nine type I members in the hair follicle. Journal of Biological Chemistry 274: 19874–19884.

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Rogers MA, Langbein L, Winter H, et al. (2001) Characterization of a cluster of human high/ultrahigh sulfur keratin associated protein (KAP) genes embedded in the type I keratin gene domain on chromosome 17q 12–21 . Journal of Biological Chemistry 276: 19440–19451.

Rogers MA, Winter H, Langbein L, Wolf C and Schweizer J (2000) Characterization of a 300 kbp region of human DNA containing the type II hair keratin gene domain. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 114: 464–472.

Rogers MA, Winter H, Wolf C, Heck M and Schweizer J (1998) Characterization of a 190‐kilobase pair domain of human type I hair keratin genes. Journal of Biological Chemistry 273: 26683–26691.

Savtchenko ES, Tomic M, Ivker R and Blumenberg M (1990) Three parallel linkage groups of human acidic keratin genes. Genomics 7: 394–407.

Steinert PM and Roop DR (1988) Molecular and cellular biology of intermediate filaments. Annual Review of Biochemistry 57: 593–625.

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Further Reading

Fuchs E (1997) Of mice and men: genetic disorders of the cytoskeleton. Molecular Biology of the Cell 8: 189–203.

Heid HW, Werner E and Franke WW (1986) The complement of native alpha‐keratin polypeptides of hair‐forming cells: a subset of eight polypeptides that differ from epithelial cytokeratins. Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity 32: 101–119.

Jones LN and Steinert PM (1996) Hair keratinization in health and disease. Dermatological Clinics 14: 633–650.

Lane EB (1994) Keratin diseases. Current Opinion in Genetics and Development 4: 412–418.

Moll R, Franke WW, Schiller DL, Geiger B and Krepler R (1982) The catalog of human cytokeratins: patterns of expression in normal epithelia, tumors and cultured cells. Cell 31: 11–24.

Swift JA (1977) The histology of keratin fibers. In: Asquito RS (ed.) Chemistry of Natural Protein Fibers, pp. 81–146. New York, NY: Plenum Press.

Web Links

Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM). Online catalog of human diseases and genetic disorders http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/omim/

keratin 1 (epidermolytic hyperkeratosis). LocusID: 3848 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/LocusLink/LocRpt.cgi?1=3848

keratin, hair, acidic, 5. LocusID: 3886 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/LocusLink/LocRpt.cgi?1=3886

keratin 1 (epidermolytic hyperkeratosis). MIM number: 139350 http://www3.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/htbin‐post/Omim/dispmim?139350

keratin, hair, acidic, 5. MIM number: 602764 http://www3.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/htbin‐post/Omim/dispmim?602764

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How to Cite close
Rogers, MA(Jan 2006) Keratins and Keratin Diseases. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1038/npg.els.0005905]