Cell Cycle Checkpoint Genes and Cancer

Abstract

Several genes have been identified that control different ‘checkpoints’ in the cell division cycle. Some of these may have clinical significance, in the diagnosis and possible treatment of some cancers.

Keywords: cyclin‐dependent kinase; tumor suppressor; p53; CDK inhibitor, oncogene, DNA damage

Figure 1.

Simplified model of the mammalian cell cycle. Different cyclin‐dependent kinase (CDK)/cyclin complexes are the key regulators of the cell cycle phases and are involved in the checkpoint mechanisms at the transition of one cell cycle phase to the next. Two core signaling pathways of the G1 phase are indicated. The CKI and tumor suppressor p16 inhibits CDK4 and ‐6 which contribute to retinoblastoma protein (RB) inactivation by phosphorylation, so that E2F transcription factors are released and transactivate S‐phase genes. Secondly, the CKI p21, for example, induced by the p53 tumor suppressor, inhibits many CDK/cyclin complexes, thereby inhibiting the G1–S transition.

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Further Reading

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Web Links

Cyclin D1 (PRAD1: parathyroid adenomatosis 1) (CCND1); Locus ID: 595. LocusLink: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/LocusLink/LocRpt.cgi?l=595

Cyclin‐dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21, Cip1) (CDKN1A); Locus ID: 1026. LocusLink: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/LocusLink/LocRpt.cgi?l=1026

Cyclin‐dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (p27, Kip1) (CDKN1B); Locus ID: 1027. LocusLink: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/LocusLink/LocRpt.cgi?l=1027

Cyclin‐dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (melanoma, p16, inhibits CDK4) (CDKN2A); Locus ID: 1029. LocusLink: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/LocusLink/LocRpt.cgi?l=1029

Cyclin‐dependent kinase 4 (CDK4); Locus ID: 1019. LocusLink: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/LocusLink/LocRpt.cgi?l=1019

Cyclin D1 (PRAD1: parathyroid adenomatosis 1) (CCND1); MIM number: 168461. OMIM: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/htbin‐post/Omim/dispmim?168461

Cyclin‐dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21, Cip1) (CDKN1A); MIM number: 116899. OMIM: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/htbin‐post/Omim/dispmim?116899

Cyclin‐dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (p27, Kip1) (CDKN1B); MIM number: 600778. OMIM: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/htbin‐post/Omim/dispmim?600778

Cyclin‐dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (melanoma, p16, inhibits CDK4) (CDKN2A); MIM number: 600160. OMIM: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/htbin‐post/Omim/dispmim?600160

Cyclin‐dependent kinase 4 (CDK4); MIM number: 123829. OMIM: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/htbin‐post/Omim/dispmim?123829

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Funk, Jens Oliver(Jan 2006) Cell Cycle Checkpoint Genes and Cancer. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1038/npg.els.0006046]