Imprinting: Evolution

Abstract

Genomic imprinting, the differential expression of maternally and paternally derived genes, diminishes the ability to mask the deleterious effects of recessive mutations, one of the major advantages of diploidy. Nevertheless, imprinting has evolved at roughly 40 mammalian loci, and several hypotheses have been proposed to explain how the apparent disadvantage of imprinting has been overcome.

Keywords: genomic imprinting; genetic conflict; ovarian time bomb; inactivation; gene expression; ploidy levels

References

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Further Reading

Bartolomei MS and Tilghman SM (1997) Genomic imprinting in mammals. Annual Review of Genetics 31: 493–525.

de la Casa‐Esperon E and Sapienza C (2003) Natural selection and the evolution of genome imprinting. Annual Reviews of Genetics 37: 349–370.

Haig D (1992) Genomic imprinting and the theory of parent–offspring conflict. Seminars in Developmental Biology 3: 153–160.

Haig D (2000) The kinship theory of genomic imprinting. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 31: 9–32.

Haig D and Trivers R (1995) The evolution of parental imprinting: a review of hypotheses. In: Ohlsson R, Hall K and Ritzen M (eds.) Genomic Imprinting: Causes and Consequences, pp. 17–28. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

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Iwasa Y, Mochizuki A and Takeda Y (1999) The evolution of genomic imprinting: abortion and overshoot explain aberrations. Evolutionary Ecology Research 1: 129–150.

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Spencer HG and Williams MJM (1997) The evolution of genomic imprinting: two modifier‐locus models. Theoretical Population Biology 51: 23–35.

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Web Links

Imprinted Gene Catalog. Catalog of imprinted genes and parent‐of‐origin effects in humans and animals http://www.otago.ac.nz/IGC

IGF2 (insulin‐like growth factor 2); LocusID: 3481. Locus Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/LocusLink/LocRpt.cgi?l=3481

IGF2 (insulin‐like growth factor 2); OMIM: 147470. OMIM: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/dispomim.cgi?id=147470

IL4 (interleukin 4); LocusID: 3565. Locus Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/LocusLink/LocRpt.cgi?l=3565

IL4 (interleukin 4); OMIM: 147780. OMIM: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/dispomim.cgi?id=147780

WT1 (Wilms tumor 1); LocusID: 7490. Locus Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/LocusLink/LocRpt.cgi?l=7490

WT1 (Wilms tumor 1); OMIM: 194070. OMIM: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/htbin‐post/Omim/ dispmim?194070

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How to Cite close
Spencer, Hamish G(Dec 2007) Imprinting: Evolution. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0006139.pub2]