Transcriptomics and Proteomics: Integration?


The genes are transcribed to pre‐messenger RNA, further processed to messenger RNA (transcripts), and finally translated into protein. The transcriptome constitutes the complete set of different transcripts that is synthesized in the lifetime of a cell or a tissue. The proteome refers to the complete set of proteins that is expressed, and modified following expression in the lifetime of a cell or a given tissue. Transcriptomics refers to the study of the transcriptome, while proteomics refers to the study of the proteome using large‐scale technologies for transcript or protein analyses. The two disciplines each provide unique information and supplement each other.

Keywords: transcriptome; transcriptomics; proteome; proteomics

Figure 1.

Flow of information from DNA via mRNA to protein. A gene (DNA) is transcribed (step 1) to the various forms of RNA, first to pre‐mRNA that may be edited (step 2) and then processed (step 3) to one or by alternative splicing to several forms of mRNAs. The mRNAs are then transported (step 4) out of the nucleus to the cytosol. In the cytosol, the mRNA may be degraded (step 5) or translated (step 6) into protein. The activities of the proteins are controlled (step 7). They may be synthesized as inactive proteins that later are reversibly or irreversibly activated, or alternatively synthesized as active proteins that later are inactivated. Proteins are the ultimate effecting molecules producing the physiologic effect (step 8) in virtually every mechanism in the cell.



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Web Links

DDBJ. The DNA Data Bank of Japan is officially certified to collect DNA sequences from researchers and to issue the internationally recognized accession number to data submitters. They collect data mainly from Japanese researchers, but accept data from researchers in any other country

EMBL. The EMBL (European Molecular Biology Laboratory) Nucleotide Sequence Database constitutes Europe's primary nucleotide sequence resource. Main sources for DNA and RNA sequences are direct submissions from individual researchers, genome sequencing projects and patent applications

GenBANK. GenBANK is the NIH (National Institute of Health) genetic sequence database, an annotated collection of all publicly available DNA sequences. GenBANK is part of the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration, which comprises the DNA DataBank of Japan (DDBJ), the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), and GenBank at NCBI. These three organizations exchange data on a daily basis

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Honoré, Bent, and Østergaard, Morten(Jan 2006) Transcriptomics and Proteomics: Integration?. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. [doi: 10.1038/npg.els.0006188]