Proteomics and Genomics Technology: Comparison in Heart Failure and Apoptosis


Recent developments in microarray technology in determining the protein and gene content of cellular extracts will allow, on a much larger scale, the characterization of genes and proteins that change due to heart failure.

Keywords: microarrays; cardiomyopathy; heart failure; apoptosis; genomics

Figure 1.

Scanned images of 96 gene arrays from Clive and Vera Ramaciotti consortium, University of NSW, Australia. The genes are spotted in duplicate. Green spots (e.g. actin) indicate genes that are upregulated, orange spots (e.g. tubulin) indicate genes that are downregulated while yellow spots (e.g. myosin) show genes that have equal expression in donor and diseased hearts. Bright spots indicate a large amount of gene present, while no color means the gene is absent in the sample.

Figure 2.

Pie chart illustrating a quarter (24×25 spots) of a Micromax gene array in which mRNAs from human left ventricles are compared. The diameter of the pie represents the expression level of each spotted gene (the stronger the gene expression, the larger the diameter) and dark and light shadings indicate the expression in DCM and donor heart respectively. Equal gene expression divides a pie in half.

Figure 3.

Apoptosis signaling pathways. Upon induction of apoptosis through the Fas signaling pathway, there is an alteration in the permeability of mitochondrial membranes. This change causes the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria (Mito) into the cytoplasm, which in turn activates cascades of caspases. The Bcl‐2 family of proteins regulates cell death by controlling mitochondrial membrane permeability.



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Further Reading

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Wettschureck N, Rutten H, Zywietz A, et al. (2001) Absence of pressure overload induced myocardial hypertrophy after conditional inactivation of Galphaq/Galpha11 in cardiomyocytes. Nature Medicine 7: 1236–1240.

Zhu H, Bilgin M, Bangham R, et al. (2001) Global analysis of protein activities using proteome chips. Science 293: 2101–2105.

Web Links

Database for proteins identified on 2‐D PAGE maps of ventricle and atrium of human myocardium

Clive and Vera Ramaciotti consortium, University of New South Wales, Australia

Micromax array from Perkin Elmer

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Nosworthy, Neil J, Tsubakihara, Masako, and dos Remedios, Cristobal G(Sep 2006) Proteomics and Genomics Technology: Comparison in Heart Failure and Apoptosis. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. [doi: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0006225]