Y Chromosome Evolution

Abstract

The evolution of the Y chromosomes of different taxa (humans, plants and Drosophila) is considered as well as the degeneration processes that affected the autosomal ancestor (proto‐Y chromosome). The acquisition of testis‐expressed genes and their amplifications on the Y chromosome are discussed. In spite of the differences and the specificity of evolutionary forces driving their diversification, the molecular studies of the Y chromosomal structures reveal some unexpected similarities in different evolutionary lineages.

Keywords: Y chromosome; degenerate genes; ampliconic sequences; heterochromatin; loss of recombination

Figure 1.

Simplified scheme of the human Y chromosome structure, according to the results of sequencing (Skaletsky et al., ). PAR, pseudoautosomal regions; Cen, centromere; Yp and Yq, left and right arms, respectively; intermingled ampliconic and X‐degenerate regions are shown; AZF, location of azoospermia factor, containing amplified genes; SRY, sex chromosome‐determining region.

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References

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Further Reading

Bachtrog D (2006) Expression profile of a degenerating neo‐Y chromosome in Drosophila. Current Biology 16: 1694–1699.

Carvalho AB and Clark AG (2005) Y chromosome of D. pseudoobscura is not homologous to the ancestral Drosophila. Science 307: 108–110.

Fraser JA, Dietzmann S, Subaran RL et al. (2004) Convergent evolution of chromosomal sex‐determining regions in the animal and fungal kingdoms. PLoS Biology 2: e384.

Graves JAM, Koina E and Sankovich N (2006) How the gene content of human sex chromosome evolved. Current Opinion in Genetics & Development 16: 219–224.

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How to Cite close
Gvozdev, Vladimir A(Mar 2008) Y Chromosome Evolution. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0020740]