Fusarium and Fusarium–Cereal Interactions

Abstract

The genus Fusarium currently includes over 80 species. This number is increasing as studies based upon deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequence comparison become more common. The majority of Fusarium species are associated with plants and many are important plant pathogens. This review introduces the species of greatest significance with respect to cereal crops. As well as causing significant yield loss, many of the species produce a range of secondary metabolites (mycotoxins) that are harmful to human and animal consumers. Studies are unravelling the genetics of mycotoxin biosynthesis and regulation but work is still required to understand the role of these compounds in the life cycle of the producing fungi.

Key concepts

  • Introduction to fungal diversity in relation to the Fusarium genus and its relationship to cereal crops.

  • Species concepts: morphological, biological and phylogenetic.

  • Genetic basis of mycotoxin biosynthesis.

  • Role of mycotoxins and other secondary metabolites in plant–pathogen interaction.

Keywords: Gibberella; deoxynivalenol; trichothecene; fumonisin; zearalenone

Figure 1.

Fusarium head blight (FHB). (a) Symptoms of FHB on wheat. (b) Comparison of uninfected grain and Fusarium‐infected grain. (c) Structure of deoxynivalenol (DON).

close

References

Bacon CW, Hinton DM and Hinton A (2006) Growth‐inhibiting effects of concentrations of fusaric acid on the growth of Bacillus mojavensis and other biocontrol Bacillus species. Journal of Applied Microbiology 100: 185–194.

Bai GH, Desjardins A and Plattner R (2001) Deoxynivalenol‐nonproducing Fusarium graminearum causes initial infection but does not cause disease spread in wheat spikes. Mycopathologia 153: 91–98.

Bottalico A (1998) Fusarium diseases of cereals: species complex and related mycotoxin profiles. European Journal of Plant Pathology 80: 85–103.

Bowden RL, Fuentes‐Bueno I, Leslie JF, Lee J and Lee Y‐W (2008) Methods for detecting chromosome rearrangements in Gibberella zeae. Cereal Research Communications 36(suppl. B): 603–608.

Carter JP, Rezanoor HN, Holden D et al. (2002) Variation in pathogenicity associated with the genetic diversity of Fusarium graminearum. European Journal of Plant Pathology 108: 573–583.

Chandler EA, Simpson DR, Thomsett MA and Nicholson P (2003) Development of PCR assays to Tri7 and Tri13 and characterisation of chemotypes of Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium cerealis. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology 62: 355–367.

Desjardins AE, Busman M, Muhitch M and Proctor RH (2007) Complementary host‐pathogen genetic analyses of the role of fumonisins in the Zea mays‐Gibberella moniliformis interaction. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology 70: 149–160.

Desjardins AE, Hohn TM and McCormick SP (1992) Effect of gene disruption of trichodiene synthase on virulence of Gibberella pulicaris. Molecular Plant‐Microbe Interactions 5: 214–222.

Desjardins AE, Munkvold GP, Plattner RD and Proctor RH (2002) FUM1 – a gene required for fumonisin biosynthesis but not for maize ear rot and ear infection by Gibberella moniliformis in field tests. Molecular Plant‐Microbe Interactions 15: 1157–1164.

Desjardins AE and Proctor RH (2007) Molecular biology of Fusarium mycotoxins. International Journal of Food Microbiology 119: 47–50.

Desjardins AE, Proctor RH, Bai GH et al. (1996) Reduced virulence of trichothecene‐nonproducing mutants of Gibberella zeae in wheat field tests. Molecular Plant‐Microbe Interactions 9: 775–781.

El‐Hasan A, Walker F and Buchenauer H (2008) Trichoderma harzianum and its metabolite 6‐pentyl‐alpha‐pyrone suppress fusaric acid produced by Fusarium moniliforme. Journal of Phytopathology 156: 79–87.

Fekete C, Logrieco A and Giczey G Hornok (1997) Screening of fungi for the presence of trichodiene synthase encoding sequence by hybridisation to the Tri5 gene cloned from Fusarium poae. Mycopathologia 138: 91–97.

Gutleb AC, Morrison E and Murk AJ (2002) Cytotoxicity assays for mycotoxins produced by Fusarium strains: a review. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 11: 309–320.

Hagler WM Jr, Towers NR, Mirocha CJ, Eppley RM and Bryden WL (2001) Zearalenone: mycotoxin or mycoestrogen. In: Summerell BA, Leslie JF, Backhouse D and Burgess LW (eds). Fusarium. Paul E. Nelson Memorial Symposium, pp. 321–331. St. Paul, MN: American Phytopathological Society Press.

Harris LJ, Desjardins AE, Plattner RD et al. (1999) Possible role of trichothecene mycotoxins in virulence of Fusarium graminearum on maize. Plant Disease 83: 954–960.

Herrmann M, Zocher R and Haese A (1996) Enniatin production by Fusarium strains and its effect on potato tuber tissue. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 62: 393–398.

Jennings P, Coates ME, Walsh K, Turner JA and Nicholson P (2004) Determination of deoxynivalenol‐ and nivalenol‐producing chemotypes of Fusarium graminearum isolated from wheat crops in England and Wales. Plant Pathology 53: 643–652.

Joffe AZ (1986) Fusarium Species Their Biology and Toxicology. New York: Wiley.

Kim YT, Lee YR, Jin JM et al. (2005) Two different polyketide synthase genes are required for synthesis of zearalenone in Gibberella zeae. Molecular Microbiology 58: 1102–1113.

Kimura M, Kaneko I, Komiyama M et al. (1998) Trichothecene 3‐O‐acetyltransferase protects both the producing organism and transformed yeast from related mycotoxins – cloning and characterization of Tri101. Journal of Biological Chemistry 273(3): 1654–1661.

Kimura M, Tokai T, Takahashi‐Ando N, Ohsato S and Fujimura M (2007) Molecular and genetic studies of Fusarium trichothecene biosynthesis: Pathways, genes, and evolution. Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 71: 2105–2123.

Krska R, Baumgartner S and Josephs R (2001) The state‐of‐the‐art in the analysis of type‐A and ‐B trichothecene mycotoxins in cereals. Fresenius Journal of Analytical Chemistry 371: 285–299.

Langseth W, Bernhoft A, Rundberget T, Kosiak B and Gareis M (1999) Mycotoxin production and cytotoxicity of Fusarium strains isolated from Norwegian cereals. Mycopathologia 144: 103–113.

Lee T, Han YK, Kim K‐H, Yun S‐H and Lee Y‐W (2002) Tri13 and Tri7 determine deoxynivalenol‐ and nivalenol‐producing chemotypes of Gibberella zeae. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 68: 2148–2154.

Lew H, Chelkowski J, Pronczuk P and Edinger W (1996) Occurrence of the mycotoxin moniliformin in maize (Zea mays L) ears infected by Fusarium subglutinans (Wollenw and Reinking) Nelson et al. Food Additives and Contaminants 13: 321–324.

Liu W, Sundheim L and Langseth W (1998) Trichothecene production and the relationship to vegetative compatibility groups in Fusarium poae. Mycopathologia 140: 105–114.

Logrieco A, Mule G, Moretti A and Bottalico A (2002) Toxigenic Fusarium species and mycotoxins associated with maize ear rot in Europe. European Journal of Plant Pathology 108: 597–609.

Lysoe E, Klemsdal SS, Bone KR et al. (2006) The PKS4 gene of Fusarium graminearum is essential for zearalenone production. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 72: 3924–3932.

Ma H, Yao J, Zhou M et al. (2008) Molecular breeding for wheat head blight resistance in China (2008). Cereal Research Communications 36(suppl. B): 203–212.

Maier FJ, Miedaner T, Hadeler B et al. (2006) Involvement of trichothecenes in fusarioses of wheat, barley and maize evaluated by gene disruption of the trichodiene synthase (Tri5) gene in three field isolates of different chemotype and virulence. Molecular Plant Pathology 7: 449–461.

Navarro L, Bari R, Achard P et al. (2008) DELLAs control plant immune responses by modulating the balance and salicylic acid signalling. Current Biology 18: 650–655.

Nelson PE, Toussoun TA and Cook RJ (1981) Fusarium: Disease, Biology and Taxonomy. St. Paul, Minnesota: USA Pensylvania University Press.

Nelson PE, Desjardins AE and Plattner RD (1993) Fumonisins, mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species: biology, chemistry and significance. Annual Review of Phytopathology 31: 233–252.

O'Donnell K, Kistler HC, Tacke BK and Casper HH (2000) Gene genealogies reveal global phylogeographic structures and reproductive isolation among lineages of Fusarium graminearum the fungus causing wheat scab. Proceedings of the National Accademy of Science of the USA 97: 7905–7910.

O'Donnell K, Ward TJ, Geiser DM, Kistler HC and Aoki T (2004) Genealogical concordance between the mating type locus and seven other nuclear genes supports formal recognition of nine phylogenetically distinct species within the Fusarium graminearum clade. Fungal Genetics and Biology 41: 600–623.

Parry DW, Jenkinson P and MCleod L (1995) Fusarium ear blight (scab) in small‐grain cereals – a review. Plant Pathology 44: 207–238.

Placinta CM, D'Mello JPF and Macdonald AMC (1999) A review of worldwide contamination of cereal grains and animal feed with Fusarium mycotoxins. Animal Feed Science and Technology 78: 21–37.

Proctor RH, Brown DW, Plattner RD and Desjardins AE (2003) Co‐expression of 15 contigous genes delineates a fumonisin biosynthetic cluster in Gibberella moniliformis. Fungal Genetics and Biolology 38: 237–249.

Proctor RH, Desjardins AE, Plattner RD and Hohn TM (1999) A polyketide synthase gene required for biosynthesis of fumonisin mycotoxins in Gibberella fujikuroi slating population A. Fungal Genetics and Biology 27: 100–112.

Proctor RH, Hohn TM and McCormick SP (1995) Reduced virulence of gibberella‐zeae caused by disruption of a trichothecene toxin biosynthetic gene. Molecular Plant‐Microbe Interactions 8(4): 593–601.

Qu B, Li HP, Zhang JB et al. (2008) Geographic distribution and genetic diversity of Fusarium graminearum and F. asiaticum on wheat spikes throughout China. Plant Pathology 57: 15–24.

Rotter BA and Prelusky DB (1996) Toxicology of deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin). Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 48: 1–34.

Ryu JC, Ohtsubo K and Izumiyama N (1988) The acute and chronic toxicities of nivalenol in mice. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 11: 38–47.

Seo J‐A, Proctor RH and Plattner RD (2001) Characterization of four clustered and coregulated genes associated with fumonisin biosynthesis in Fusarium verticillioides. Fungal Genetics and Biology 34: 155–165.

Son SW, Kim HY, Choi GJ et al. (2008) Bikaverin and fusaric acid from Fusarium oxysporum show antioomycete activity against Phytophthora infestans. Journal of Applied Microbiolgy 104: 692–698.

Soriano JM and Dragacci S (2004) Occurrence of fumonisins in foods. Food Research International 37: 985–1000.

Torp M and Nirenberg HI (2004) Fusarium langsethiae sp nov on cereals in Europe. International Journal of Food Microbiology 95: 247–256.

Voss KA, Smith GW and Haschek WM (2007) Fumonisins: toxicokinetics, mechanism of action and toxicity. Animal Feed Science and Technology 137: 299–325.

Waalwijk C, Kastelein P, de Vries I et al. (2003) Major changes in Fusarium spp. in wheat in the Netherlands. European Journal of Plant Pathology 109: 743–754.

Ward TJ, Bielawski JP, Kistler HC, Sullivan E and O'Donnell K (2002) Ancestral polymorphism and adaptive evolution in the trichothecene mycotoxin gene cluster of phytopathogenic Fusarium. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 99: 9278–9283.

Wildermuth GB and McNamara RB (1994) Testing wheat seedlings for resistance to crwon rot caused by Fusarium graminearum group‐1. Plant Disease 78: 949–953.

Windels CE (2000) Economic and social impacts of Fusarium head blight: changing farms and rural communities in the Northern Great Plains. Phytopathology 90: 17–21.

Xu XM, Parry DW, Nicholson P et al. (2005) Predominance and association of pathogenic fungi causing Fusarium ear blight in wheat in four European countries. European Journal of Plant Pathology 112: 143–154.

Further Reading

Magan N and Olsen M (eds) (2004) Mycotoxins in Food: Detection and control. Cambridge, England: CRC Press, Woodhead Publishing Limited.

Summerell BA, Leslie JF, Backhouse D, Bryden WL and Burgess LW (eds) (2001) Fusarium: Paul E. Nelson Memorial Symposium. St. Paul, MN: The American Phytopathology Society Press.

Contact Editor close
Submit a note to the editor about this article by filling in the form below.

* Required Field

How to Cite close
Nicholson, Paul(Mar 2009) Fusarium and Fusarium–Cereal Interactions. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0021266]