Coltiviruses and Seadornaviruses

Abstract

Coltiviruses and seadornaviruses are members of the family Reoviridae, which encompasses alongside the genera Coltivirus and Seadornavirus, 13 other genera of viruses that can infect mammals, birds, aquatic animals, reptiles, insects, plants, fungi and protists. Coltiviruses are transmitted by hard ticks of the family Ixodidae, whereas seadornaviruses are mosquito‐borne. These viruses can infect humans, following the bite of adult infected female ticks or mosquitoes, causing febrile illnesses and are occasionally responsible for encephalitis. Coltiviruses are principally endemic in the north‐western parts of the United States and Canada and were also reported in European countries, including France and Germany. Antibodies to coltiviruses have also been identified from patients in the former Czechoslovakia and South Korea. Seadornaviruses are principally endemic in the south‐east Asia, although recent data showed that there has been an expansion of their distribution northwards, reaching the north‐western Chinese borders. Banna virus (Seadornavirus) has been isolated from human encephalitis cases.

Key Concepts

  • Coltiviruses are transmitted by adult female tick (family Ixodidae) bite and have animal reservoirs.
  • Coltiviruses can infect humans causing febrile illnesses and can cause encephalitis in rare cases.
  • Seadornaviruses are transmitted by mosquitoes and no animal reservoir is known to date.
  • Seadornaviruses can infect animals and humans causing febrile illnesses and were reported to be responsible for cases of encephalitis.
  • Coltiviruses show an evolutionary relationship to the turreted mycoreoviruses, aquareoviruses and orthoreoviruses.
  • Seadornaviruses show an evolutionary relationship to the nonturreted rotaviruses.
  • Coltiviruses seem to represent a missing link between turreted and nonturreted members of the family Reoviridae.
  • Differential diagnostic serological and molecular assays for coltiviruses and seadornaviruses are available.
  • Structure of the viral particles of Banna virus shows striking similarities to that of the rotaviruses.

Keywords: coltivirus; seadornavirus; Reoviridae; encephalitis; vector‐borne virus

Figure 1. Electron micrograph for negatively stained virus particles. (a) Colorado tick fever virus, (b) Banna virus particles showing projections from the surface and (c) Banna virus cores.
Figure 2. Agarose gel electropherotypes of the genomes of seadornaviruses and coltiviruses.
Figure 3. The structure of the VP9 outer capsid protein of Banna virus determined by X‐ray crystallography at a resolution of 2.6 Å.
Figure 4. Phylogenetic relations among members of Reoviridae based on the sequences of their putative RNA‐dependent RNA polymerases. Neighbour‐joining phylogenetic tree built with available polymerase sequences (using the Poisson correction algorithms) for representative members of the 15 recognised genera of the family Reoviridae. The abbreviations and accession numbers are those provided in Table. This tree depicts the two subfamilies Sedoreovirinae and Spinareovirinae within the family Reoviriade. Coltiviruses cluster with the members of Spinareovirinae while seadornaviruses cluster with Sedoreovirinae.
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Further Reading

Attoui H and Mertens PPC (2007) Seadornaviruses (Reoviridae). In: Mahy B and Van Regenmortel M , (eds). Encyclopedia of Virology. London: Elsevier.

Attoui H and de Lamballerie X (2007) Coltiviruses (Reoviridae). In: Mahy B and Van Regenmortel M , (eds). Encyclopedia of Virology. London: Elsevier.

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Mohd Jaafar, Fauziah, and Attoui, Houssam(Jun 2015) Coltiviruses and Seadornaviruses. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0021553.pub2]