Genetic Influences on Dental Caries

Abstract

Dental caries is the most common bacteria‐mediated disease in the world despite being highly preventable. It is traditionally described as the interplay among a susceptible host, microbiota and diet. While studies of environmental risk factors have dominated the research effort on cariology, the past decade has demonstrated a growing interest in the factors that are genetically controlled that directly affect the host. The dental enamel, saliva and immune responses and individual behaviours are such factors. Genes involved in dental enamel development have been in the centre of most recent investigations; however, genes related to immune responses and saliva formation appear to be growing in interest. Genetics of behaviour is still an area completely unexplored in the cariology field, with the exception of the known variants that influence individual taste preferences. New insight may come for exploring the genes that are involved in the decision‐making process.

Key Concepts

  • Dental caries is a bacteria‐mediated disease that is greatly influenced by factors of the host.
  • Host factors influencing dental caries are genetically influenced.
  • Our limited understanding of the genetic influences of the host has impaired our ability for preventing dental caries at the population level.

Keywords: dental caries; oral microbiome; oral health; genetics; complex inheritance; Mendelian inheritance; dental enamel; amelogenesis imperfecta; saliva

Figure 1. Caries lesion progression over time.
Figure 2. Immunohistochemical analysis showing expression in secretory stage ameloblasts. Immunohistochemistry of demineralised, paraffin sections of mouse mandibular molar at 4 days postnatal (20X).
Figure 3. Host factors influencing the pathogenesis of dental caries.
close

References

Aidar M, Marques R, Valjakka J, et al. (2013) Effect of genetic polymorphisms in CA6 gene on the expression and catalytic activity of human salivary carbonic anhydrase VI. Caries Research 47 (5): 414–420.

Bachmanov AA and Beauchamp GK (2007) Taste receptor genes. Annual Reviews of Nutrition 27 (1): 389–414.

Bayram M, Deeley K, Reis MF, et al. (2015) Genetic influences on dental enamel that impact caries differ between the primary and permanent dentitions. European Journal of Oral Sciences. Epub ahead of print.

Dill A, Letra A, Souza LC, et al. (2015) Analysis of multiple cytokine polymorphisms in individuals with untreated deep carious lesions reveals IL1B (rs1143643) as a susceptibility factor for periapical lesions development. Journal of Endodontics 41 (2): 197–200.

Duverger O, Ohara T, Shaffer JR, et al. (2014) Hair keratin mutations in tooth enamel increase dental decay risk. Journal of Clinical Investigations 124 (12): 5219–5224.

El‐Sayed W, Parry DA, Shore RC, et al. (2009) Mutations in the beta propeller WDR72 cause autosomal‐recessive hypomaturation amelogenesis imperfecta. American Journal of Human Genetics 85 (5): 699–705.

Felszeghy S, Módis L, Németh P, et al. (2004) Expression of aquaporin isoforms during human and mouse tooth development. Archives of Oral Biology 49 (4): 247–257.

Fine DH (2015) Lactoferrin: a roadmap to the borderland between caries and periodontal diseases. Journal of Dental Research 94 (6): 768–776.

Hart PC, Hart TC, Michalec MD, et al. (2004) Mutations in kallikrein 4 causes autosomal recessive hypomaturation amelogenesis imperfecta. Journal of Medical Genetics 41 (7): 545–549.

Hu JC, Chun YH, Al Hazzazzi T, et al. (2007) Enamel formation and amelogenesis imperfecta. Cells Tissues Organs 186 (1): 78–85.

Huckert M, Stoetzel C, Morkmued S, et al. (2015) Mutations in the latent TGF‐beta binding protein 3 (LTBP3) gene cause brachyolmia with amelogenesis imperfecta. Human Molecular Genetics 24 (11): 3038–3049.

Kim JW, Simmer JP, Hart TC, et al. (2005) MMP‐20 mutation in autosomal recessive pigmented hypomaturation amelogenesis imperfecta. Journal of Medical Genetics 42 (3): 271–275.

Kim JW, Lee SK, Lee ZH, et al. (2008) FAM83H mutations in families with autosomal‐dominant hypocalcified amelogenesis imperfecta. Americal Journal of Human Genetics 82 (2): 489–494.

Kim JW, Seymen F, Lee KO, et al. (2013) LAMB3 mutations causing autosomal‐dominant amelogenesis imperfecta. Journal of Dental Research 92 (10): 899–904.

Kohno M, Nurmi EL, Laughlin CP, et al. (2015) Functional genetic variation in dopamine signaling moderates prefrontal cortical activity during risky decision making. Neuropsychopharmacology 1 (1): 1–9.

Lagerström M, Dahl N, Nakahori Y, et al. (1991) A deletion in the amelogenin gene (AMG) causes X‐linked amelogenesis imperfecta (AIH1). Genomics 10 (4): 971–975.

Ma T, Song Y, Gillespie A, et al. (1999) Defective secretion of saliva in transgenic mice lacking aquaporin‐5 water channels. Journal of Biological Chemistry 274 (29): 20071–20074.

Martelli‐Júnior H, Bonan PR, Santos LA, et al. (2008) Case reports of a new syndrome associating gingival fibromatosis and dental abnormalities in a consanguineous family. Journal of Periodontology 79 (7): 1287–1296.

Menezes‐Silva R, Khaliq S, Deeley K, et al. (2012) Genetic susceptibility to periapical disease: conditional contribution of MMP2 and MMP3 genes to the development of periapical lesions and healing response. Journal of Endodontics 38 (5): 604–607.

Nedwick‐Castro K and Vieira AR (2012) Failure to control caries in an AIDS affected individual: a case report. Case Reports in Dentistry 1 (1): 643436.

Parry DA, Brookes SJ, Logan CV, et al. (2012) Mutations in C4orf26, encoding a peptide with in vitro hydroxyapatite crystal nucleation and growth activity, cause amelogenesis imperfecta. American Journal of Human Genetics 91 (3): 555–571.

Poulter JA, Murillo G, Brookes SJ, et al. (2014) Deletion of ameloblastin exon 6 is associated with amelogenesis imperfecta. Human Molecular Genetics 23 (20): 5317–5324.

Rapjar MH, Harley K, Laing C, et al. (2001) Mutation of the gene encoding the enamel‐specific protein, enamelin, causes autosomal‐dominant amelogenesis imperfecta. Human Molecular Genetics 10 (16): 1673–1677.

Ribeiro TR, Dria KJ, Carvalho CB, et al. (2013) Salivary peptide profile and its association with early childhood caries. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 23 (3): 225–234.

Schenkels LC, Veerman EC and Nieuw Amerongen AV (1995) Biochemical composition of human saliva in relation to other mucosal fluids. Critical Reviews of Oral Biology and Medicine 6 (2): 161–175.

Toledano M, Niero‐Aguilar R, Osorio R, et al. (2010) Differential expression of matrix metalloproteinase‐2 in human coronal and radicular sound and carious dentine. Journal of Dentistry 38 (8): 635–640.

Vieira AR, Modesto A and Marazita ML (2014) Caries: review of human genetics research. Caries Research 48 (5): 491–506.

Vieira AR, Gibson CW, Deeley KD, et al. (2015) Weaker dental enamel explains dental decay. PLoS One 10 (4): e0124236.

Wang X, Willing MC, Marazita ML, et al. (2012) Genetic and environmental factors associated with dental caries in children: the Iowa fluoride study. Caries Research 46 (3): 177–184.

Weber ML, Hsin HY, Kalay E, et al. (2014) Role of estrogen related receptor beta (ESRRB) in DFN35B hearing impairment and dental decay.

Further Reading

Nyvad B, ten Cate JM and Robinson C (eds) (2003) Cariology in the 21st Century, State of the Art and Future Perspectives, 50th Anniversary ORCA Congress, Konstanz, July 2013: Proceedings. 170 p., 28 fig., 4 in color, 21 tab., soft cover, 2004, ISBN: 978‐3‐8055‐7779‐3, e‐ISBN: 978‐3‐318‐01109‐8, DOI: 10.1159/isbn.978‐3‐318‐01109‐8.

Shuler CF (2001) Inherited risks for susceptibility to dental caries. Journal of Dental Education 65 (10): 1038–1045.

Thylstrup A and Fejerskov O (eds) (1994) Textbook of Clinical Cardiology, 2nd edn. Copenhagen, Denmark: Munksgaard International Publishers. ISBN10 8716109163; ISBN13 9788716109163.

Young D, Wolff M and Fontana M (2010) Current Concepts in Cariology, an Issue of Dental Clinics. Saunders. ISBN: 978‐1‐4377‐2440‐0.

Contact Editor close
Submit a note to the editor about this article by filling in the form below.

* Required Field

How to Cite close
Vieira, Alexandre R(Jan 2016) Genetic Influences on Dental Caries. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0024258]