Genetics of Depression

Abstract

Probing the genetic basis of depression not only informs our understanding of the role that genes play in disease, but also further offers the potential to provide invaluable insights into the aetiology, classification and neurobiology of the disorder. Moreover, understanding the genetics of depression may offer a starting point for the development of novel, and potentially more efficacious treatments for patients.

Although a number of genes have been implicated in depression, a genetic variant that is unequivocally associated with an increased risk of the disease is yet to be identified. As genome‐wide approaches to analysing genetic variation gain momentum, large‐scale collaborations have brought insights into how best to conceptualise depression as an illness. Nonetheless, the identification of specific genetic variants associated with depression still eludes researchers. By building on the knowledge gained from these collaborative datasets, and utilising newer and more sophisticated technologies and methodologies, it is likely that researchers will be able to replicate in depression, the successes of genetic research in other complex disorders.

Key Concepts:

  • MDD is a complex genetic disorder involving interactions between multiple genetic variants and environmental factors.

  • Some areas of interest have been implicated via linkage methodologies in MDD, but this method is more suited to more strongly heritable forms of the disease.

  • Many candidate gene studies of MDD have been underpowered to detect small genetic influences, and are constrained by our limited understanding of the neurobiology of the disease.

  • Genome‐wide association methodologies have not yet identified any clear markers of the disease, but have informed our understanding of MDD.

  • Following the progress of genetic research into other disease phenotypes, the collection of larger patient cohorts is likely to yield success in identifying the genetic variants involved in MDD.

  • Newer technologies and analysis methods to model the biological complexity of the illness are also rapidly evolving.

Keywords: major depressive disorder (MDD); depression; genetics; genome‐wide association studies (GWAS); linkage; candidate gene studies; gene–environment interactions

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Hodgson, Karen, and McGuffin, Peter(Sep 2013) Genetics of Depression. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0025048]