Hamburger, Viktor


Viktor Hamburger (1900–2001) was a German‐American embryologist who, through investigating the relationships between the developing peripheral organs, such as limbs and the development of the central nervous system in amphibians and chicks, established neuroembryology from a tradition of experimental embryology. His work prepared the foundation upon which the nerve growth factor was discovered in his laboratory.

Keywords: experimental embryology; neuroembryology; nerve growth factor; cell death; Hans Spemann

Figure 1.

Viktor Hamburger in 1933, from ‘Viktor Hamburger’. Embryo Project Encyclopaedia (1933). ISSN: 1940‐5030 Source:‐hamburger‐0. © MBL WHOI LIBRARY.


Further Reading

Allen GE (2004) A pact with the embryo: Viktor Hamburger, holistic and mechanistic philosophy in the development of neuroembryology, 1927–1955. Journal of the History of Biology 37: 421–475.

Allen GE (2008) Hamburger, Viktor. In: Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography, vol. 21, pp. 216–225. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons.

Hamburger V (1934) The effects of wing bud extirpation in chick embryos on the development of the central nervous system. Journal of Experimental Zoology 68: 449–494.

Hamburger V (1988) The Heritage of Experimental Embryology. New York: Oxford University Press.

Hamburger V and Levi‐Montalcini R (1949) Proliferation, differentiation, and degeneration in the spinal ganglia of the chick embryo under normal and experimental conditions. Journal of Experimental Zoology 111: 457–502.

Hamburger V , Levi‐Montalcini R and Cohen S (1954) A nerve growth‐stimulating factor isolated from sarcomas 37 and 180. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science s of the USA 40: 1014–1018.

Oppenheim RW (2001) Viktor Hamburger (1900–2001): journey of a neuroembryologist to the end of the millennium and beyond. Neuron 31: 179–190.

Contact Editor close
Submit a note to the editor about this article by filling in the form below.

* Required Field

How to Cite close
Jiang, Lijing(Jan 2014) Hamburger, Viktor. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. [doi: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0025058]