Archaeal Cells

Abstract

At a first glance, Archaea are quite similar to Bacteria on a structural level, and for a long time they were named ‘Archaebacteria’. They can form cocci, rods, spirals or irregular shaped cells and are equally sized as Bacteria. Together they are referred to as ‘Prokaryotes’ because neither Archaea nor Bacteria possess a nucleus. Although this term indeed might be helpful in habitual language use, it does not refer to a phylogenetic group. In fact, transcription and translation machineries of Archaea have much more in common with eukaryotic cells than with Bacteria. In addition, there are many features that remain characteristic for Archaea, given by the fact that many representatives live and thrive under extreme environmental conditions.

Key Concepts

  • By application of respective PCR techniques, Archaea can be found in almost every habitat and sometimes are even more abundant than bacteria.
  • Archaea show special adaptations to their sometimes extreme environments, like caldarchaeols, which are more stable at high temperatures.
  • Like Bacteria, Archaea are also surrounded by a lipid bilayer, but in the latter case, the lipid moiety consists of C5‐isoprenoid units that are coupled to glycerol via ether bonds at (sn)‐2,3 positions of the glycerol.
  • Cell walls can be as simple as a proteinaceous surface layer or as complicated as in some methanogens with multiple layers, additional sheaths enclosing several cells and even more complex cell wall compounds.
  • Archaea exhibit a broad variety in cell appendages that are different from bacterial ones in fine structure, composition, biosynthesis and anchorage in the cell.

Keywords: Archaea; cell structure; cell appendages; cell envelope; S‐layer; tetraether lipids; plasma membrane; flagella

Figure 1. (a–c) Freeze‐etching of Metallosphaera sedula (Sulfolobales), depicting the hexagonal S‐layer with p3‐symmetry. (b) Freeze‐fractured cell of M. sedula, showing the cell of (c) at higher magnification. SL, S‐layer; PS, periplasmic space; CM, cytoplasmic membrane; C, cytoplasm. (d) Ultrathin section of a high‐pressure frozen cell of Sulfolobus metallicus. Black arrows, S‐layer; grey arrows, cell appendages. (e) Negative‐staining of a rod‐shaped M. kandleri. Scale bars: 200 nm (a), 100 nm (b), 500 nm (c,d) and 1 μm (e).
Figure 2. (a) Most common core lipids in archaeal membranes, R = polar headgroup; (b) 50 nm Epon section of a high pressure frozen Ignicoccus hospitalis cell contrasted with 0.5% uranyl acetate. CP, cytoplasm; CM, cytoplasmic membrane; IMC, intermembrane compartment; OCM, outer cellular membrane; V, vesicle. Scale bar: 0.5 μm.
Figure 3. Flagella of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius MW156. (b) and (c) both show the cell appendages of the lobed coccoid cell, in (a) at higher magnification. Especially in (c), the repetitive pattern of the protein subunits (flagellins) becomes visible. Negative staining with 2% uranyl acetate. Scale bars: 1 μm (a), 200 nm (b) and 100 nm (c).
Figure 4. Archaeal cell appendages. (a) Micrograph of a negatively stained flagellum from M. hungatei showing the filament, hook and knob. Reproduced and modified from Archaeal cells by Terry J Beveridge. (b) Cannulae of the crenarchaeote Pyrodictium abyssi. Courtesy of G. Rieger, Institute of Microbiology, University of Regensburg, Germany. (c) Fibres of I. hospitalis. Courtesy of C. Meyer, Institute of Groundwater Ecology, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany. (d) Hami of SM1 euryarchaeon, exhibiting the grappling hook at the tip. Courtesy of C. Moissl‐Eichinger, Institute of Microbiology, University of Regensburg, Germany. (e) Mth60 fimbriae of Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus. Negative staining with uranyl acetate. Scale bars: 100 nm. Courtesy of C. Sarbu, Institute of Microbiology, University of Regensburg, Germany.
close

References

Albers S‐V and Meyer B (2011) The archaeal cell envelope. Nature Reviews Microbiology 9 (6): 414–426.

Albers S, Eichler J and Markus A (2017) Chapter 22: Archaea. Essentials of Glycobiology 3: 22.

Albers S‐V and Jarrell KF (2018) The Archaellum: an update on the unique archaeal motility structure. Trends in Microbiology 26: 4.

Araya‐Secchi R, Garate JA, Holmes DS and Perez‐Acle T (2011) Molecular dynamics study of the archaeal aquaporin AqpM. BMC Genomics 12 (Suppl. 4): S8.

Atomi H, Fukui T, Kanai T, Morikawa M and Imanaka T (2004) Description of Thermococcus kodakaraensis sp. nov., a well studied hyperthermophilic archaeon previously reported as Pyrococcus sp. KOD1. Archaea 1: 263–267.

Bardy SL, Mori T, Komoriya K, Aizawa S and Jarrell KF (2002) Identification and localization of flagellins FlaA and FlaB3 within the flagella of Methanococcus voltae. Journal of Bacteriology 184: 5223–5233.

Bardy SL, Ng SY and Jarrell KF (2004) Recent advances in the structure and assembly of the archaeal flagellum. Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology 7: 41–51.

Baumeister W and Lembcke G (1992) Structural features of archaebacterial cell envelopes. Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes 24: 567–575.

Bellack A, Huber H, Rachel R, Wanner G and Wirth R (2010) Methanocaldococcus villosus sp. nov., a heavely flagellated archaeon adhering to surfaces and forming cell‐cell contacts. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 61 (6): 1239–1245.

van den Berg B, Clemons WM Jr, Collinson I, et al. (2004) X‐ray structure of a protein conducting channel. Nature 427: 36–44.

Beveridge TJ, Harris BJ, Patel GB and Sprott GD (1986) Cell division and filament splitting in Methanothrix concilii. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 32: 779–786.

Beveridge TJ and Graham LL (1991) Surface layers of bacteria. Microbiological Reviews 55 (4): 684–705.

Beveridge TJ, Sprott GD and Whippey P (1991) Ultrastructure, inferred porosity, and gram‐staining character of Methanospirillum hungatei filament termini describe a unique cell permeability for this archaeobacterium. Journal of Bacteriology 173 (1): 130–140.

Beveridge TJ, Choquet CG, Patel GB and Sprott GD (1993) Freeze‐fracture planes of methanogen membranes correlate with the content of tetraether lipids. Journal of Bacteriology 175 (4): 1191–1197.

Borowska MT, Dominik PK, Anghel SA, Kossiakoff AA and Keenan RJ (2015) A YidC‐like protein in the archaeal plasma membrane. Structure 23: 1715–1724.

Briegel A, Oikonomou CM, Chang Y‐W, et al. (2015) Structural conservation of chemotaxis machinery across Archaea and Bacteria. Environmental Microbiology Reports 7: 414–419.

Cario A, Grossi V, Schaeffer P and Oger PM (2015) Membrane homeoviscous adaptation in the piezo‐hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus barophilus. Frontiers of Microbiology 6: 1152.

Chaudhary P, Quax TEF and Albers S‐V (2018) Versatile cell surface structures of archaea. Molecular Microbiology 107 (3): 298–311.

Chong PLG, Ayesa U, Daswani VP and Hur EC (2012) On physical properties of tetraether lipid membranes: effects of cyclopentane rings. Archaea. DOI: 10.1155/2012/138439.

Chugunov AO, Volynsky PE, Krylov NA, Boldyrev IA and Efremov RG (2014) Liquid but durable: molecular dynamics simulations explain the unique properties of archaeal‐like membranes. Scientific Reports 4: 7462.

Cohen‐Krausz S and Trachtenberg S (2008) The flagellar filament structure of the extreme acidothermophile Sulfolobus shibatae B12 suggests that archaeabacterial flagella have a unique and common symmetry and design. Journal of Molecular Biology 375: 1113–1124.

Comolli LR, Baker BJ, Downing KH, Siegerist CE and Banfield JF (2009) Three‐dimensional analysis of the structure and ecology of a novel, ultra‐small archaeon. ISME J 3: 159–167.

Comolli LR and Banfield JF (2014) Inter‐species interconnections in acid mine drainage microbial communities. Frontiers of Microbiology 5: 367.

Cruden D, Sparling R and Markovetz AJ (1989) Isolation and ultrastructure of the flagella of Methanococcus thermolithotrophicus and Methanospirillum hungatei. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 55 (6): 1414–1419.

Dalbey RE and Kuhn A (2015) Membrane insertases are present in all three domains of life. Structure 23: 1559–1560.

Darland G, Brock TD, Samsonoff W and Conti SF (1970) A thermophilic, acidophilic mycoplasma isolated from a coal refuse pile. Science 170: 1416–1418.

Daum B, Vonck J, Bellack A, et al. (2017) Structure and in situ organisation of the Pyrococcus furiosus archaellum machinery. Elife 6: 352.

De Rosa M and Gambacorta A (1976) The Caldariella group of extreme thermoacidophile Bacteria: direct comparison of lipids in Sulfolobus, Thermoplasma, and the MT strains. Phytochemistry 15: 143–145.

De Rosa M, De Rosa S, Gambacorta A and Bu'Lock JD (1980a) Structure of Calditol, a new branched‐chain nonitol, and the derived tetraether lipids in thermoacidophile Archaebacteria. Phytochemistry 19: 249–254.

De Rosa M, Esposito E, Gambacorta A, Nicolaus B and Bu'Lock JD (1980b) Effects of temperature on ether lipid composition of Caldariella acidophila. Phytochemistry 19: 827–831.

De Rosa M and Gambacorta A (1988) The lipids of Archaebacteria. Progress in Lipid Research 27: 153–175.

De Rosa M (1996) Archaeal lipids: structural features and supramolecular organization. Thin Solid Films 284–285: 13–17.

Doddema HJ, Derksen JWM and Vogels GD (1979) Fimbriae and flagella of methanogenic bacteria. FEMS Microbiology Letters 5: 135–138.

Ellen AF, Albers SV, Huibers W, et al. (2009) Proteomic analysis of secreted membrane vesicles of archaeal Sulfolobus species reveals the prescence of endosome sorting complex compounds. Extremophiles 13: 67–79.

Ellen AF, Zolghadr B, Driessen AMJ and Albers SV (2010) Shaping the cell envelope. Archaea. DOI: 10.1155/2010/608243.

Ellen AF, Rohulya OV, Fusetti F, et al. (2011) The Sulfolobicin genes of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius encode novel antimicrobial proteins. Journal of Bacteriology 193 (17): 4380–4387.

Eme L, Spang A, Lombard J, Stairs C and Ettema T (2017) Archaea and the origin of eukaryotes. Nature Reviews, Microbiology 15: 711–723.

Engel A and Gaub HE (2008) Structure and mechanics of membrane proteins. Annual Review of Biochemistry 77: 127–148.

Esquivel RN and Pohlschroder M (2014) A conserved type IV pilin signal peptide H‐domain is critical for the post‐translational regulation of flagella‐dependent motility. Molecular Microbiology 93 (3): 494–504.

Ettema TJG, Lindas A‐C and Bernander R (2011) An actin‐based cytoskeleton in archaea. Molecular Microbiology 80 (4): 1052–1061.

Ferrante G, Ekiel I, Girischandra BP and Sprott GDE (1988) Structure of the major polar lipids isolated from the aceticlastic methanogen, Methanothrix concilii GP6. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 963: 162–172.

Firtel M, Southam G, Harauz G and Beveridge TJ (1993) Characterization of the cell wall of the sheathed methanogen Methanospirillum hungatei GP1 as an S layer. Journal of Bacteriology 23: 7550–7560.

Fröls S, Gordon PM, Panlilio MA, et al. (2007) Response of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus to UV damage. Journal of Bacteriology 189: 8708–8718.

Gaudin M, Gauliard E, Schouten S, et al. (2013) Hyperthermophilic archaea produce membrane vesicles that can transfer DNA. Environmental Microbiology Reports 5 (1): 109–116.

Gambacorta A, Trincone A, Nicolaus B, Lama L and De Rosa M (1993) Unique features of lipids of Archaea. Systematic and Applied Microbiology 16 (4): 518–527.

Golyshina OV and Timmis KN (2005) Ferroplasma and relatives, recently discovered cell wall‐lacking archaea making a living in extremely acid, heavy metal‐rich environments. Environmental Microbiology 7: 1277–1288.

Gongadze GM, Kostyukova AS, Miroshnichenko ML and Bonch‐Osmolovskaya EA (1993) Regular proteinaceous layers of Thermococcus stetteri cell envelope. Current Microbiology 27: 5–9.

Gorlas A, Croce O, Oberto J et al. (2014) Thermococcus nautili sp. nov., a hyperthermophilic archaeon isolated from a hydrothermal deep‐sea vent. International Journal for Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 64 (5): 1802–1810.

Grant CR, Wan J, Komeili A (2018) Organelle Formation in Bacteria and Archaea. Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology 34: 217–238.

Greber BJ, Boehringer D, Godinic‐Mikulcic V, et al. (2012) Cryo‐EM structure of the archaeal 50S ribosomal subunit in complex with initiation factor 6 and implications for ribosome evolution. Journal of Molecular Biology 418: 145–160.

Grimm R, Singh H, Rachel R, et al. (1998) Electron tomography of ice‐embedded prokaryotic cells. Biophysical Journal 74: 1031–1042.

Heimerl T, Flechsler J, Pickl C, et al. (2017) A complex endomembrane system in the archaeon Ignicoccus hospitalis tapped by Nanoarchaeum equitans. Frontiers of Microbiology 8: 1072.

Henche A‐L, Ghosh A, Yu X, et al. (2012) Structure and function of the adhesive type IV pilus of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius. Environmental Microbiology 14: 3188–3202.

Henneberger R, Moissl C, Amann T, Rudolph C and Huber R (2006) New insights into the lifestyle of the cold‐loving SM1 euryarchaeon: natural growth as a monospecies biofilm in the subsurface. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 72: 192–199.

Herzog B and Wirth R (2012) Swimming behavior of selected species of Archaea. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 78: 1670–1674.

Huber H, Küper U, Daxer S and Rachel R (2012) The unusual cell biology of the hyperthermophilic Crenarchaeon Ignicoccus hospitalis. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 102: 203–219.

Huet J, Schnabel R, Sentenac A and Zillig W (1983) Archaebacteria and eukaryotes possess DNA‐dependent RNA polymerases of a common type. EMBO J. 2: 1291–1294.

Imachi H, Nobu MK, Nakahara N, et al. (2020) Isolation of an archaeon at the prokaryote‐eukaryote interface. Nature 577: 519–525.

Jahn U, Summons R, Sturt H, Grosjean E and Huber H (2004) Composition of the lipids of Nanoarchaeum equitans and their origin from its host Ignicoccus sp. Strain KIN4/I. Archives of Microbiology 182: 404–413.

Jahn U, Gallenberger M, Paper A, et al. (2008) Nanoarchaeum equitans and Ignicoccus hospitalis: new insights into a unique, intimate association of two archaea. Journal of Bacteriology 190 (5): 1743–1750.

Jarrell KF and Albers S‐V (2012) The archaellum: an old motility structure with a new name. Trends in Microbiology 20 (7): 307–312.

Jarrell KF, Ding Y, Meyer BH, et al. (2014) N‐linked glycosylation in archaea: a structural, functional, and genetic analysis. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 78: 304–341.

Jaschke M, Butt H‐J and Wolff EK (1994) Imaging flagella of halobacteria by atomic force microscopy. Analyst 119: 1943–1946.

Junglas B, Briegel A, Burghardt T, et al. (2008) Ignicoccus hospitalis and Nanoarchaeum equitans: ultrastructure, cell‐cell interaction, and 3D reconstruction from serial sections of freeze‐substituted cells and by electron cryotomography. Archives of Microbiology 190 (3): 395–408.

Kandiba L and Eichler J (2014) Archaeal S‐layer glycoproteins: post‐translational modification in the face of extremes. Frontiers of Microbiology 5: 661.

Kalmokoff ML, Jarrell KF and Koval SF (1988) Isolation of flagella from the archaebacterium Methanococcus voltae by phase separation with Triton X‐114. Journal of Bacteriology 170: 1752–1758.

Kaneshiro SM and Clark DS (1995) Pressure effects on the composition and thermal behavior of lipids from the deep‐sea thermophile Methanococcus jannaschii. Journal of Bacteriology 177: 3668–3672.

Kates M (1978) The phytanyl ether‐linked polar lipids and isoprenoid neutral lipids of extremely halophilic bacteria. Progress in the Chemistry of Fats and Other Lipids 15: 301–342.

Kates M (1992) Archaebacterial lipids: structure, biosynthesis and function. Biochemical Society Symposia 58: 51–72.

Kinosita Y, Uchida N, Nakane D and Nishizaka T (2016) Direct observation of rotation and steps of the archaellum in the swimming halophilic archaeon Halobacterium salinarum. Nature Microbiology 1: 16148.

Klingl A (2014) S‐layer and cytoplasmic membrane – exceptions from the typical archaeal cell wall with a focus on double membranes. Frontiers of Microbiology 5: 624.

Klingl A, Pickl C and Flechsler J (2019) Chapter 14: Archaeal cell walls. Springer Nature, Bacterial Cell Walls and Membranes, Subcellular Biochemistry 92: 471–493.

Koga Y, Nishihara M, Morii H and Akagawa‐Matsushita M (1993) Ether polar lipids of methanogenic bacteria: structures, comparative aspects, and biosyntheses. Microbiological Reviews 57 (1): 164–182.

Koga Y (2012) Thermal adaption of the archaeal and bacterial lipid membranes. Archaea. DOI: 10.1155/2012/789652.

König H, Rachel R and Claus H (2007) Proteinaceous surface layers of Archaea: ultrastructure and biochemistry. In: Cavicchioli R (ed.) Archaea: Molecular and Cell Biology, pp 315–340. American Society of Microbiology Press: Washington, DC, USA.

Kostyukova AS, Gongadze GM, Polosina YY, et al. (1999) Investigation of structure and antigenic capacities of Thermococcales cell envelopes and reclassification of “Caldococcus litoralis” Z‐1301 as Thermococcus litoralis Z‐1301. Extremophiles 3 (4): 239–245.

Kupper J, Marwan W, Typke D, et al. (1994) The flagellar bundle of Halobacterium salinarum is inserted into a distinct polar cap structure. Journal of Bacteriology 176: 5184–5187.

Küper U, Meyer C, Müller V, Rachel R and Huber H (2010) Energized outer membrane and spatial separation of metabolic processes in the hyperthermophilic Archaeon Ignicoccus hospitalis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 107: 3152–3156.

Langworthy TA, Smith PF and Mayberry WR (1972) Lipids of Thermoplasma acidophilum. Journal of Bacteriology 112: 1193–1200.

Langworthy TA (1977) Long‐chain diglycerol tetraethers from Thermoplasma acidophilum. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 487: 37–50.

Langworthy TA, Tornabene TG and Holzer G (1982) Lipids of Archaebacteria. Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie Mikrobiologie und Hygiene: I. Abt. Originale C: Allgemeine, Angewandte und Ökologische Mikrobiologie 3 (2): 228–244.

Lassak K, Gosh A and Albers SV (2012) Diversity, assembly and regulation of archaeal type IV pili‐like and non‐type‐IV pili‐like surface structures. Research in Microbiology 163: 630–644.

Leuko S, Legat A, Fendrihan S and Stan‐Lotter H (2004) Evaluation of the LIVE/DEAD BacLight Kit for detection of extremophilic Archaea and visualization of microorganisms in environmental hypersaline samples. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 70 (11): 6884–6886.

Mancuso CA, Odham G, Westerdahl G, Reeve JN and White DC (1985) C15, C20, and C25 isoprenoid homologues in glycerol diether phospholipids of methanogenic archaebacteria. Journal of Lipid Research 26: 1120–1125.

Mayr J, Lupas A, Kellermann J, Eckerskorn C, et al. (1996) A hyperthermostable protease of the subtilisin family bound to the surface layer of the archaeon Staphylothermus marinus. Current Biology 6 (6): 739–749.

McDougall M, Francisco O, Harder‐Viddal C, et al. (2017) Archaea S‐layer nanotube from a “black smoker” in complex with cyclo‐octasulfur (S8) rings. Proteins 85 (12): 2209–2216.

Meyer BH and Albers S‐V (2013) Hot and sweet: protein glycosylation in Crenarchaeota. Biochemical Society Transactions 41: 384–392.

Meyer C, Heimerl T, Wirth R, Klingl A and Rachel R (2014) The Iho670 fibers of Ignicoccus hospitalis are anchored in the cell by a spherical structure located beneath the inner membrane. Journal of Bacteriology 196 (21): 3807–3815.

Miroshnichenko M, Gongadze GM, Rainey FA, et al. (1998) Thermococcus gorgonarius sp. nov. and Thermococcus pacificus sp. nov.: heterotrophic extremely thermophilic archaea from New Zealand submarine hot vents. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 48: 23–29.

Mitchell P (1961) Coupling of phosphorylation to electron and hydrogen transfer by a chemi‐osmotic type of mechanism. Nature 191: 144–148.

Moissl C, Rudolph C, Rachel R, Koch M and Huber R (2003) In situ growth of the novel SM1 euryarchaeon from a string‐of‐pearls‐like microbial community in its cold biotope, its physical separation and insights into its structure and physiology. Archives of Microbiology 180 (3): 211–217.

Moissl C, Rachel R, Briegel A, Engelhardt H and Huber R (2005) The unique structure of archaeal ‘hami’, highly complex cell appendages with nano‐grappling hooks. Molecular Microbiology 56: 361–370.

Moissl‐Eichinger C and Huber H (2011) Archaeal symbionts and parasites. Current Opinion in Microbiology 14 (3): 364–370.

Müller D, Meyer C, Gürster S, et al. (2009) The Iho670 fibers of Ignicoccus hospitalis: a new type of archaeal cell surface appendage. Journal of Bacteriology 191: 6465–6468.

Nair DB, Chung DKC, Schneider J, et al. (2013) Identification of an additional minor pilin essential for piliation in the archaeon Methanococcus maripaludis. PLoS ONE 8 (12): e83961.

Ng SYM, Chaban B and Jarrell KF (2006) Archaeal flagella, bacterial flagella and type IV pili: a comparison of genes and posttranslational modifications. Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology 11: 167–191.

Ng SYM, Zolghadr B, Driessen AJM, Albers S‐V and Jarrell KF (2008) Cell surface structures of Archaea. Journal of Bacteriology 190 (18): 6039–6047.

Nickell S, Hegerl R, Baumeister W and Rachel R (2003) Pyrodictium cannulae enter he periplasmic space but do not enter the cytoplasm, as revealed by cryo‐electron tomography. Journal of Structural Biology 141: 34–42.

Nishihara M, Morii H and Koga Y (1987) Structure determination of a quartet of novel tetraether lipids from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum. Journal of Biochemistry 101: 1007–1015.

Näther DJ, Rachel R, Wanner G and Wirth R (2006) Flagella of Pyrococcus furiosus: multifunctional organelles, made for swimming, adhesion to various surfaces, and cell–cell contacts. Journal of Bacteriology 188: 6915–6923.

Oesterhelt D (1998) The structure and mechanism of the family of retinal proteins from halophilic archaea. Current Opinion in Structural Biology 8: 489–500.

Perras AK, Daum B, Ziegler C, et al. (2015) S‐layers at second glance? Altiarchaeal grappling hooks (hami) resemble archaeal s‐layer proteins in structure and sequence. Frontiers of Microbiology 6: 543.

Pfeifer F (2012) Distribution, formation and regulation of gas vesicles. Nature Reviews Microbiology 10: 705–715.

Pohlschröder M, Giménez MI and Jarrell KF (2005) Protein transport in Archaea: sec and twin arginine translocation pathways. Current Opinion in Microbiology 8 (6): 7.

Prangishvili D, Holz I, Stieger E, et al. (2000) Sulfolobicins, specific proteinaceous toxins produced by strains of the extremely thermophilic archaeal genus. Sulfolobus 182 (10): 2985–2988.

Probst AJ, Weinmaier T, Raymann K, et al. (2014) Biology of a widespread uncultivated archaeon that contributes to carbon fixation in the subsurface. Nature Communications 5: 5497.

Pum D, Messner P and Sleytr UB (1991) Role of the S layer in morphogenesis and cell division of the archaebacterium Methanocorpusculum sinense. Journal of Bacteriology 173: 6865–6873.

Rachel R, Wyschkony I, Riehl S and Huber H (2002) The ultrastructure of Ignicoccus: evidence for a novel outer membrane and for intracellular vesicle budding in an archaeon. Archaea 1: 9–18.

Rachel R, Meyer C, Klingl A, et al. (2010) Analysis of the ultrastructure of archaea by electron microscopy. Methods in Cell Biology 96: 47–69.

Reysenbach AL, Liu Y, Banta AB, et al. (2006) A ubiquitous thermoacidophilic archaeon from deep‐sea hydrothermal vents. Nature 442: 444–447.

Rieger G, Rachel R, Herman R and Stetter KO (1995) Ultrastructure of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrodictium abyssi. Journal of Structural Biology 115: 78–87.

Rodrigues‐Oliveira T, Belmok A, Vasconcellos D, Schuster B and Kyaw CM (2017) Archaeal S‐layers: overview and current state of the art. Frontiers of Microbiology 8: 2597.

Siliakus MF, van der Oost J and Kengen SWM (2017) Adaptations of archaeal and bacterial membranes to variations in temperature, pH and pressure. Extremophiles 21: 651–670.

Sandman K and Reeve JN (2006) Archaeal histones and the origin of the histone fold. Current Opinion in Microbiology 9: 520–525.

Schlegel K, Leone V, Faraldo‐Gómez JD and Müller V (2012) Promiscuous archaeal ATP synthase concurrently coupled to Na+ and H+ translocation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 109: 947–952.

Schuster B and Sleytr UB (2015) Relevance of glycosylation of S‐layer proteins for cell surface properties. Elsevier Acta Biomaterialia 19: 149–157.

Seufferheld MJ, Kim KM, Whitfield J, Valerio A and Caetano‐Anollés G (2011) Evolution of vacuolar proton pyrophosphatase domains and volutin granules: clues into the early evolutionary origin of the acidocalcisome. Biology Direct 6: 50.

Shahapure R, Driessen RPC, Haurat MF, Albers S‐V and Dame RT (2014) The archaellum: a rotating type IV pilus. Molecular Microbiology 91: 716–723.

Shalev Y, Turgeman‐Grott I, Tamir A, Eichler J and Gophna U (2017) Cell surface glycosylation is required for efficient mating of Haloferax volcanii. Frontiers of Microbiology 8: 1253.

Shimada H, Nemoto N, Shida Y, Oshima T and Yamagishi A (2002) Complete polar lipid composition of Thermoplasma acidophilum HO‐62 determined by high‐performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light‐scattering detection. Journal of Bacteriology 184 (2): 556–563.

Shimada H, Nemoto N, Shida Y, Oshima T and Yamagishi A (2008) Effects of pH and temperature on the composition of lipids in Thermoplasma acidophilum HO‐62. Journal of Bacteriology 190 (15): 5404–5411.

Sinninghe Damsté JS, Rijpstra WIC, Hopmans EC, et al. (2007) Structural characterization of diabolic acid‐based tetraester, tetraether and mixed ether/ester, membrane‐spanning lipids of bacteria from the order Thermotogales. Archives of Microbiology 188: 629–641.

Soler N, Marquet E, Verbavatz JM and Forterre P (2008) Virus‐like vesicles and extracellular DNA produced by hyperthermophilic archaea of the order Thermococcales. Research in Microbiology 159: 390–399.

Soler N, Gaudin M, Marquet E and Forterre P (2011) Plasmids, virusses and virus‐like membrane vesicles from Thermococcales. Biochemical Society Transactions 39 (1): 36–44.

Spang A, Eme L, Saw JH, et al. (2018) Asgard archaea are the closest prokaryotic relatives of eukaryotes. PLoS Genet 14 (3): e1007080.

Spang A, Saw JH, Jørgensen SL, et al. (2015) Complex archaea that bridge the gap between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Nature 521: 173–179.

Sprott GD, Ekiel I and Dicaire C (1990) Novel, acid‐labile hydroxydiether lipid cores in methanogenic bacteria. Journal of Biological Chemistry 265 (23): 13735–13740.

Stieglmeier M, Klingl A, Rittmann S, et al. (2014) Nitrososphaera viennensis sp. nov., an aerobic and mesophilic ammonia oxidizing archaeon from soil and member of the novel archaeal phylum Thaumarchaeota. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 64: 2738–2752.

Swain M, Brisson J‐R, Sprott GD, Cooper FP and Patel GB (1997) Identification of β‐L‐gulose as the sugar moiety of the main polar lipid Thermoplasma acidophilum. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1345: 56–64.

Syutkin AS, Pyatibratov MG, Galzitskaya OV, Rodriguez‐Valera F and Fedorov OV (2014) Haloarcula marismortui archaellin genes as ecoparalogs. Extremophiles 18: 341–349.

Szabó Z, Stahl AO, Albers S‐V, et al. (2007) Identification of diverse archaeal proteins with class III signal peptides cleaved by distinct archaeal prepilin peptidases. Journal of Bacteriology 189: 772–778.

Thoma C, Frank M, Rachel R, et al. (2008) The Mth60 fimbriae of Methanothermobacter thermoautotrophicus are functional adhesions. Environmental Microbiology 10: 2785–2795.

Tornabene TG, Kates M, Gelpi E and Oro J (1969) Occurence of squalene, di‐ and tetrahydrosqualenes, and vitamin MK8 in an extremely halophilic bacterium, Halobacterium cutirubrum. Journal of Lipid Research 10: 294–303.

Tornabene TG, Wolfe RS, Balch WE, et al. (1978) Phytanyl‐glycerol ethers and squalenes in the Archaebacterium Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum. Journal of Molecular Evolution 11: 259–266.

Toso DB, Henstra AM, Gunsalus RP and Zhou ZH (2011) Structural, mass and elemental analysis of storage granules in methanogenic archaeal cells. Environmental Microbiology 13: 2587–2599.

Trachtenberg S, Galkin VE and Egelman EH (2005) Refining the structure of the Halobacterium salinarum flagellar filament using the iterative helical real space reconstruction method: isights into polymorphism. Journal of Molecular Biology 346: 665–676.

Uda I, Sugai A, Ito YH and Itoh T (2001) Variation in molecular species of polar lipids from Thermoplasma acidophilum depends on growth temperature. Lipids 36 (1): 103–105.

Vainshtein M, Suzina N, Kudryashova E and Ariskina E (2002) New magnet‐sensitive structures in bacterial and archaeal cells. Biology of the Cell/Under the Auspices of the European Cell Biology Organization 94: 29–35.

Veith A, Klingl A, Zolghadr B, et al. (2009) Acidianus, Sulfolobus and Metallosphaera surface layers: structure, composition and gene expression. Molecular Microbiology 73 (1): 58–72.

Wang YA, Yu X, Ng SYM, Jarrell KF and Egelman EH (2008) The structure of an archaeal pilus. Journal of Molecular Biology 381 (2): 456–466.

Weijers JW, Schouten S, Hopmans EC, et al. (2006) Membrane lipids of mesophilic anaerobic bacteria thriving in peats have typical archaeal traits. Environmental Microbiology 8 (4): 648–657.

Williams TA, Foster PG, Cox CJ and Emblem TM (2013) An archaeal origin of eukaryotes supports only two primary domains of life. Nature 504 (7479): 231–236.

Wirth R (2017) Colonization of black smokers by hyperthermophilic microorganisms. Trends in Microbiology 25 (2): 92–99.

Woese CR and Fox GE (1977) Phylogenetic structure of the prokaryotic domain: the primary kingdoms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 74: 5088–5090.

Woese CR, Kandler O and Wheelis ML (1990) Towards a natural system of organisms: proposal for the domains Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 87: 4576–4579.

Wuchter C, Schouten S, Boschke HTS and Sininghe Damsté JS (2003) Bicarbonate uptake by marine Crenarchaeota. FEMS Microbiology Letters 219: 203–207.

Yu X, Goforth C, Meyer C, et al. (2012) Filaments from Ignicoccus hospitalis show diversity of packing in proteins containing N‐terminal type IV pilin helices. Journal of Molecular Biology 422 (2): 274–281.

Zolghadr B, Klingl A, Koerdt A, et al. (2010) Appendage‐mediated surface adherence of Sulfolobus solfataricus. Journal of Bacteriology 192: 104–110.

Zolghadr B, Klingl A, Rachel R, Driessen AJM and Albers S‐V (2011) The bindosome is a structural component of the Sulfolobus solfataricus cell envelope. Extremophiles 15: 235–244.

Zaremba‐Niedzwiedzka K, Caceres EF, Saw JH, et al. (2017) Asgard archaea illuminate the origin of eukaryotic cellular complexity. Nature 541 (7637): 353–358.

Further Reading

Barton LL (2004) Structural and Functional Relationships in Prokaryotes, 1st edn. Springer Science & Business Media: New York, USA.

Gosh A and Albers S‐V (2011) Assembly and function of the archaeal flagellum. Biochemical Society Transactions 39: 64–69.

Hatzenpichler R (2012) Diversity, physiology, and niche differentiation of ammonia‐oxidizing archaea. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 78 (21): 7501–7510.

Kandler O and König H (1998) Cell wall polymers in Archaea (Archaebacteria). Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 54: 305–308.

König H, Claus H and Varma A (eds) (2010) Prokaryotic Cell Wall Compounds: Structure and Biochemistry. Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, Germany.

Könneke M, Bernhard AE, de la Torre JR, et al. (2005) Isolation of an autotrophic ammonia‐oxidizing marine archaeon. Nature 437: 543–546.

Moissl‐Eichinger C (2011) Archaea in artificial environments: their presence in global spacecraft clean rooms and impact on planetary protection. ISME Journal 5 (2): 209–219.

Pester M, Schleper C and Wagner M (2011) The Thaumarchaeota: an emerging view of their phylogeny and ecophysiology. Current Opinion in Microbiology 14 (3): 300–306.

Reeve JN and Schleper C (2011) Archaea: very diverse, often different but never bad? Current Opinion in Microbiology 14 (3): 271–273.

Samson RY and Bell SD (2011) Cell cycles and cell division in the archaea. Current Opinion in Microbiology 14: 350–356.

Contact Editor close
Submit a note to the editor about this article by filling in the form below.

* Required Field

How to Cite close
Chadha, Yagya, Seydel, Charlotte, and Klingl, Andreas(Sep 2020) Archaeal Cells. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0029201]