Thermotogales

Abstract

Members of the order Thermotogales have an outstanding phylogenetic position within the domain Bacteria, based on their 16S rRNA (ribosomal ribonucleic acid) genes sequences and complete genomes analysis. Some Thermotogales organisms are hyperthermophiles with the upper temperature limit of growth at 90 °C whereas others are extreme or moderate thermophiles. All Thermotogales are obligately anaerobic organotrophs with a fermentative metabolism. Thermotogales are widely distributed all over the world inhabiting terrestrial hot springs, shallow‐water and deep‐sea submarine hot vents, hot subsurface biosphere and thermophilic anaerobic reactors. Many thermostable enzymes of Thermotogales were characterised and could be used in different fields of biotechnology.

Key Concepts

  • Thermotogales represent one of the most ancient lineages of Bacteria.
  • Thermotogales have specific cell morphology features ‐ sheaths or bubbles formed by their outer cell membrane.
  • Thermotogales have the highest growth temperatures among Bacteria.
  • Thermotogales are widely spread in thermal environments including subsurface and anthropogenic ones.
  • Thermotogales are anaerobic organotrophs, and their highly thermostable enzymes are widely used in biotechnology.

Keywords: Thermotogales; Thermotoga; bacteria; thermophiles; evolution

Figure 1. Schematic 16S rRNA tree of the domain Bacteria showing the position of the order Thermotogales. Modified from Reysenbach et al. .
Figure 2. A summary diagram showing the hierarchical arrangement of the species from the phylum Thermotogae based upon different lines of evidence (branching in the 16S rRNA and concatenated protein trees, character compatibility analysis, species distribution of different CSIs). Bhandari V and Gupta R (2014) Molecular signatures for the phylum (class) Thermotogae and a proposal for its division into three orders (Thermotogales, Kosmotogales ord. nov. and Petrotogales ord. nov.) containing four families (Thermotogaceae, Fervidobacteriaceae fam. nov., Kosmotogaceae fam. nov. and Petrotogaceae fam. nov.) and a new genus Pseudothermotoga gen. nov. with five new combinations. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 105:143–168.
Figure 3. Electron micrograph of a platinum‐shadowed, single flagellated cell of Thermotoga maritima. Arrows point to the sheath‐like outer structure (toga). Bar, 1 μm.
Figure 4. Electron micrograph of Thermosipho africanus, showing four cells within a tube‐like sheath. Bar, 1 μm.
Figure 5. Electron micrograph of a thin section of Fervidobacterium islandicum. Arrow points to the terminal bleb. Bar, 1 μm.
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References

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Further Reading

Adams MWW and Kelly RM (1995) Enzymes from microorganisms in extreme environments. Chemical & Engineering News 18: 32–42.

Bibel M, Brettl C, Gosslar U, Kriegshauser G and Liebl W (1998) Isolation and analysis of genes for amylolytic enzymes of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima. FEMS Microbiology Letters 158: 9–15.

Jannasch HW (1997) Small is powerful: recollections of a microbiologist and oceanographer. Annual Review of Microbiology 52: 1–45.

Ravot G, Ollivier B, Fardeau ML, et al. (1996) L‐alanine production from glucose fermentation by hyperthermophilic members of the domains Bacteria and Archaea: a remnant of ancestral metabolism. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 62: 2657–2659.

Stetter KO (1996) Hyperthermophilic procaryotes. FEMS Microbiology Reviews 18: 149–158.

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How to Cite close
Bonch‐Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta(Dec 2020) Thermotogales. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0029224]