DNA Plant and Animal Virus Replication


DNA viruses have evolved very different replication strategies as well as a rich variety of molecular interactions with their host cells. They frequently subvert cellular pathways involved in transcription, translation, DNA replication and cellular defence. Their study is providing key information for designing strategies of virus control and, at the same time, DNA viruses are extremely useful molecular tools to delineate the mechanisms behind basic cellular processes.

Keywords: DNA virus; DNA replication; transcription; translation; virus uncoating; virus assembly

Figure 1.

General stages in viral replicative cycles. The main stages constituting the replicative cycle of a DNA virus are depicted. In the case of plant DNA viruses, there is a cell wall that imposes restrictions on viral release. In this case, it is also important that intercellular movement of viral particles is achieved through the plasmodesmata, unique structures that allow communication between the cytoplasm of neighbouring plant cells. Early/late gene expression (transcription) and the DNA replication stages can occur either in the cytoplasm (poxviruses) or in the nucleus of the infected cell.

Figure 2.

Strategies of transcriptional genomic organization of different DNA virus families. Examples are given for viruses with a single‐stranded DNA genome, either (a) linear (Parvoviridae, genus Dependovirus) or (b) circular (Geminiviridae, genus Mastrevirus), and with a double‐stranded DNA genome, either (c) linear (Adenoviridae, genus Mastadenovirus) or (d) circular (Papovaviridae, genus Polyomavirus). Messenger RNA transcripts are indicated by arrows, with the arrowhead at the 3′‐terminus and the spliced‐out intron sequences shown by angled thin lines. See text for details.

Figure 3.

Strategies for initiation of translation in DNA viruses. A bicistronic capped (black square) RNA containing two open reading frames (ORF1 and ORF2) is depicted. In addition to the standard scanning process to start translation, two other mechanisms (ribosome shunting and leaky scanning) are used by different DNA viruses to control translation of various viral ORFs. See text for details.

Figure 4.

General steps during virus DNA replication.


Further Reading

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DePamphilis ML (1996) DNA Replication in Eukaryotic Cells. pp. 639–872 Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

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Granoff A and Webster RG (1999) Encyclopedia of Virology, 2nd edn. New York: Academic Press.

Greber UF (1998) Virus assembly and disassembly: the adenovirus cysteine protease as a trigger factor. Reviews in Medical Virology 8: 213–222.

Gutierrez C (1999) Geminivirus DNA replication. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 56: 313–329.

International Committee for the Taxonomy of Viruses (2000) [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ICTV/]

Kasamatsu H and Nakanishi A (1998) How do animal DNA viruses get to the nucleus? Annual Reviews Microbiology 52: 627–686.

Krajcsi P and Wold WS (1998) Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor and interferon triggered responses by DNA viruses. Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology 9: 351–358.

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Mathews MB (1996) Interactions between viruses and the cellular machinery for protein synthesis. In: Hershey JWB, Mathews MB and Sonenberg N (eds) Translational Control, pp. 505–548. Cold Spring Harbor: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

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Murphy FA, Fauquet CM, Bishop DHL et al. (1995) The Classification and Nomenclature of Viruses. The Sixth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Vienna: Springer.

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Schneider RJ (1996) Adenovirus and vaccinia virus translational control. In: Hershey JWB, Mathews MB and Sonenberg N (eds) Translational Control, pp. 575–605. Cold Spring Harbor: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

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Gutierrez, Crisanto, and Martinez‐Salas, Encarnacion(Dec 2001) DNA Plant and Animal Virus Replication. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1038/npg.els.0001018]