X‐Chromosome Inactivation


In female mammals, one of the X‐chromosomes is transcriptionally silenced by heterochromatin formation to bring about equal expression of X‐linked genes in XX females and XY males.

Keywords: X‐chromosome; inactivation; XIST; methylation; replication


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Further Reading

Brockdorff N and Duthie SM (1998) X‐chromosome inactivation and the Xist gene. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 54: 104–112.

Goto T and Monk M (1998) Regulation of X‐chromosome inactivation in development in mice and humans. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 62: 362–378.

Heard C, Clerc P and Avner P (1997) X‐chromosome inactivation in mammals. Annual Review of Genetics 31: 571–610.

Lyon MF (1961) Gene action in the X chromosome of the mouse. Nature 190: 372–373.

Panning B and Jaenisch R (1998) RNA and the epigenetic regulation of X chromosome inactivation. Cell 93: 305–308.

Spusta SC and Goldman MA (1999) XISTential wanderings: the role of XIST RNA in X‐chromosome inactivation. Current Science 77: 530–537.

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How to Cite close
Gartler, Stanley M, and Goldman, Michael A(May 2005) X‐Chromosome Inactivation. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1038/npg.els.0004172]