Agricultural Systems: Ecology


Agricultural systems have four main inputs, cultivations, nutrients, crops and pest management, all of which are interlinked and influenced by each other. They are affected by land and water and energy availability and soil erosion. To achieve long‐term agricultural sustainability, the need for fossil‐fuel‐based inputs should be minimized and the biological and ecological inputs maximized.

Keywords: agricultural systems; agro‐ecology; sustainability resources; energy use

Figure 1.

Main components of a crop production system.



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Further Reading

Carroll CR, Vandermeer JH and Rosset PM (1990) Agroecology: Biological Resource Management Series, 641.

Edwards CA, Lal R, Madden P, Miller RH and Haise G (1990) Sustainable Agricultural Systems. Ankary, IA: Soil and Water Conservation Society.

Edwards CA, Wali MK, Horn DJ and Miller F (1993) Agriculture and the Environment. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Gleissman SR (ed.) (2000) (Edwards CA (Series ed.)) Agroecosystem Sustainability: Developing Practical Strategies. Boca Raton. FL: CRC Press.

National Research Council (1989) Alternative Agriculture. Washington DC: National Academy Press.

National Research Council (1992) Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in Humid Tropics. Washington DC: National Academy Press.

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Edwards, Clive A(Apr 2001) Agricultural Systems: Ecology. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. [doi: 10.1038/npg.els.0003250]