Chromosome 19


Human chromosome 19 is a metacentric chromosome that contains 1.9% of the genetic material in the genome. It has the highest G+C content of all the chromosomes and also the highest content, relative to size, of repetitive sequences, CpG islands and genes. It is characterized by gene clusters including cytochrome P‐450, olfactory receptors and Kruppel‐like zinc finger proteins.

Keywords: chromosome 19; genome mapping; genetic map; physical map; sequence‐ready map; genes; gene families; genetic diseases; genome sequencing; mouse homology


Bernardi G (2000) Isochores and the evolutionary genomics of vertebrates. Gene 241: 3–17.

Dehal P, Predki P, Olsen AS, et al. (2001) Human chromosome 19 and related regions in mouse: conservative and lineage‐specific evolution. Science 293: 104–111.

Hammarström S, Olsen A, Teglund S and Baranov V (1998) The nature and expression of the human CEA family. In: Stanners C (ed.) Cell Adhesion and Communication Mediated by the CEA Family. Basic and Clinical Perspectives, pp. 1–30. Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Publishers.

Hoffman SMG, Nelson DR and Keeney DS (2001) Organization, structure and evolution of the CYP2 gene cluster on human chromosome 19. Pharmacogenetics 11: 687–698.

International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium (2001) Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome. Nature 409: 860–921.

Kim J, Bergmann A and Stubbs L (2000) Exon sharing of a novel human zinc‐finger gene, ZIM2, and paternally expressed gene 3 (PEG3). Genomics 64: 114–118.

Kim J, Bergmann A, Wehri E, Lu X and Stubbs L (2001a) Imprinting and evolution of two kruppel‐type zinc‐finger genes, ZIM3 and ZNF264, located in the PEG3/USP29 imprinted domain. Genomics 77: 91–98.

Kim J, Gordon L, Dehal P, et al. (2001b) Homology‐driven assembly of a sequence‐ready mouse BAC contig map spanning regions related to the 46mb gene‐rich euchromatic segments of human chromosome 19. Genomics 74: 129–141.

Mohrenweiser HW, Tsujimoto S, Gordon L and Olsen AS (1998) Regions of sex‐specific hypo‐ and hyper‐recombination identified through integration of 180 genetic markers into the metric physical map of human chromosome 19. Genomics 47: 153–162

Morton NE (1991) Parameters of the human genome. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 88: 7474–7476.

Venter JC, Adams MD, Myers EW, et al. (2001) The sequence of the human genome. Science 291: 1304–1351.

Wende H, Volz A and Ziegler A (2000) Extensive gene duplications and a large inversion characterize the human leukocyte receptor cluster. Immunogenetics 51: 703–713.

Further Reading

Further information about chromosome 19 can be found by following the Web Links below.

Web Links

Cancer Genome Anatomy Project. Mitelman database of chromosome aberrations in cancer. Information on chromosome aberrations in cancer and their relation to tumor characteristics.

CEPH Genotype Database. Genotypes for all genetic markers that have been typed in the CEPH reference families for linkage mapping of human chromosomes

Cooperative Human Linkage Center. Information on microsatellite genetic markers and mapsdeveloped by the Cooperative Human Linkage Center

DOE Joint Genome Institute. Information on sequencing of human chromosome 19 and homologous regions of the mouse genome

Ensembl Genome Browser. Viewer display of automated annotation of human genome sequence

GDB Human Genome Database. Updated daily. Descriptions of regions of the human genome, including genes, markers, clones and contigs, maps of the human genome and variations within the genome

Genew: Human Gene Nomenclature Database Search Engine. Approved names and symbols for human genes, together with aliases and previous symbols‐bin/nomenclature/

Human Genome Organization (HUGO) Chromosome 19 home page. Provides links to a variety of chromosome 19 resource sites

Jackson Laboratory Mouse Genome Informatics. Information on mouse genes, genetic markers, phenotypes, and comparative mapping data

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Maps of human chromosome 19. Access to restriction maps, FISH maps and metric physical map of chromosome 19

Marshfield Clinic. Center for Medical Genetics. Comprehensive human genetic linkage maps and comparison of genetic and physical maps for human chromosomes

National Center for Biotechnology Information: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM). Catalog of human genes and genetic disorders

NCBI Human Genome. Status of human genome sequencing and guide to online resources and tools for analysis of genome sequence

NCBI LocusLink. Information about genetic loci, including official nomenclature, sequence accessions, phenotypes, homology, and map locations

NCBI Single Nucleotide Polymorphism dbSNP. Database of single nucleotide polymorphisms identified in human DNA sequence

SNP Consortium Ltd. Information on single nucleotide polymorphisms discovered and characterized by the SNP Consortium

Stanford Human Genome Center. Finishing status of chromosome 19 genomic clones, with access to sequence currently in the finishing process http://www‐

Weizmann Institute of Science, Bioinformatics Unit and Genome Center. GeneCards. Database of human genes, gene products and their involvement in diseases

Contact Editor close
Submit a note to the editor about this article by filling in the form below.

* Required Field

How to Cite close
Olsen, Anne S(Jan 2006) Chromosome 19. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. [doi: 10.1038/npg.els.0005828]